Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

Katri Juntunen (Corresponding Author), David Laaksonen, Karin Autio, Leo Niskanen, Jens Holst, Kari Savolainen, Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen, Kaisa Poutanen, Hannu Mykkänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin and glucose responses.

Design: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 ± 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 26.0 ± 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high-fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis and the microscopic structure of the breads were also determined.

Results: Postprandial insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were significantly lower than the response to the control; no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix and starch granules differed between the rye and control breads.

Conclusion: Total fiber content does not explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread than to wheat bread, but structural differences between rye and wheat breads might.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)957-964
Number of pages8
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume78
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Bread
Triticum
Insulin
Glucose
C-Peptide
Starch
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Secale
Hydrolysis
Endosperm
Breakfast

Keywords

  • Rye
  • wheat
  • cereal fiber
  • postprandial
  • blood glucose
  • insulin
  • C-peptide
  • glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
  • glucagon-like peptide 1
  • postmenopausal women

Cite this

Juntunen, K., Laaksonen, D., Autio, K., Niskanen, L., Holst, J., Savolainen, K., ... Mykkänen, H. (2003). Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 78(5), 957-964.
Juntunen, Katri ; Laaksonen, David ; Autio, Karin ; Niskanen, Leo ; Holst, Jens ; Savolainen, Kari ; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Mykkänen, Hannu. / Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2003 ; Vol. 78, No. 5. pp. 957-964.
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title = "Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread",
abstract = "Background: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin and glucose responses.Design: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 ± 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 26.0 ± 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high-fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis and the microscopic structure of the breads were also determined.Results: Postprandial insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were significantly lower than the response to the control; no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix and starch granules differed between the rye and control breads.Conclusion: Total fiber content does not explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread than to wheat bread, but structural differences between rye and wheat breads might.",
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author = "Katri Juntunen and David Laaksonen and Karin Autio and Leo Niskanen and Jens Holst and Kari Savolainen and Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen and Kaisa Poutanen and Hannu Mykk{\"a}nen",
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Juntunen, K, Laaksonen, D, Autio, K, Niskanen, L, Holst, J, Savolainen, K, Liukkonen, K-H, Poutanen, K & Mykkänen, H 2003, 'Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread', The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 957-964.

Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread. / Juntunen, Katri (Corresponding Author); Laaksonen, David; Autio, Karin; Niskanen, Leo; Holst, Jens; Savolainen, Kari; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 5, 2003, p. 957-964.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

AU - Juntunen, Katri

AU - Laaksonen, David

AU - Autio, Karin

AU - Niskanen, Leo

AU - Holst, Jens

AU - Savolainen, Kari

AU - Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Mykkänen, Hannu

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - Background: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin and glucose responses.Design: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 ± 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 26.0 ± 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high-fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis and the microscopic structure of the breads were also determined.Results: Postprandial insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were significantly lower than the response to the control; no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix and starch granules differed between the rye and control breads.Conclusion: Total fiber content does not explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread than to wheat bread, but structural differences between rye and wheat breads might.

AB - Background: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin and glucose responses.Design: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 ± 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 26.0 ± 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high-fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis and the microscopic structure of the breads were also determined.Results: Postprandial insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were significantly lower than the response to the control; no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix and starch granules differed between the rye and control breads.Conclusion: Total fiber content does not explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread than to wheat bread, but structural differences between rye and wheat breads might.

KW - Rye

KW - wheat

KW - cereal fiber

KW - postprandial

KW - blood glucose

KW - insulin

KW - C-peptide

KW - glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

KW - glucagon-like peptide 1

KW - postmenopausal women

M3 - Article

VL - 78

SP - 957

EP - 964

JO - The American journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 5

ER -