Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire

P. Laukkanen, S. Lehkonen, P. Uusimaa, M. Pessa, Jari Likonen, J. Keränen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    22 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)786-792
    JournalJournal of Applied Physics
    Volume92
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2002
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    vapor phase epitaxy
    hydrides
    sapphire
    molecular beam epitaxy
    electrical properties
    optical properties
    defects
    ultraviolet emission
    positron annihilation
    secondary ion mass spectrometry
    templates
    inversions
    photoluminescence
    impurities
    transmission electron microscopy
    silicon
    oxygen

    Keywords

    • gallium compounds
    • iii-v semiconductors
    • wide band gap semiconductors
    • silicon
    • semiconductor epitaxial layers
    • semiconductor growth
    • positron annihilation
    • vacancies (crystal)
    • impurity-vacancy interactions
    • photoluminescence
    • secondary ion mass spectra
    • transmission electron microscopy
    • dislocation structure
    • carrier density
    • molecular beam epitaxial growth

    Cite this

    @article{b2e7c2cd7ce6457d8d523ed173794682,
    title = "Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire",
    abstract = "Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.",
    keywords = "gallium compounds, iii-v semiconductors, wide band gap semiconductors, silicon, semiconductor epitaxial layers, semiconductor growth, positron annihilation, vacancies (crystal), impurity-vacancy interactions, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectra, transmission electron microscopy, dislocation structure, carrier density, molecular beam epitaxial growth",
    author = "P. Laukkanen and S. Lehkonen and P. Uusimaa and M. Pessa and Jari Likonen and J. Ker{\"a}nen",
    year = "2002",
    doi = "10.1063/1.1488241",
    language = "English",
    volume = "92",
    pages = "786--792",
    journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
    issn = "0021-8979",
    publisher = "American Institute of Physics AIP",
    number = "2",

    }

    Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire. / Laukkanen, P.; Lehkonen, S.; Uusimaa, P.; Pessa, M.; Likonen, Jari; Keränen, J.

    In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2002, p. 786-792.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire

    AU - Laukkanen, P.

    AU - Lehkonen, S.

    AU - Uusimaa, P.

    AU - Pessa, M.

    AU - Likonen, Jari

    AU - Keränen, J.

    PY - 2002

    Y1 - 2002

    N2 - Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.

    AB - Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.

    KW - gallium compounds

    KW - iii-v semiconductors

    KW - wide band gap semiconductors

    KW - silicon

    KW - semiconductor epitaxial layers

    KW - semiconductor growth

    KW - positron annihilation

    KW - vacancies (crystal)

    KW - impurity-vacancy interactions

    KW - photoluminescence

    KW - secondary ion mass spectra

    KW - transmission electron microscopy

    KW - dislocation structure

    KW - carrier density

    KW - molecular beam epitaxial growth

    U2 - 10.1063/1.1488241

    DO - 10.1063/1.1488241

    M3 - Article

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    JO - Journal of Applied Physics

    JF - Journal of Applied Physics

    SN - 0021-8979

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    ER -