Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire

P. Laukkanen, S. Lehkonen, P. Uusimaa, M. Pessa, Jari Likonen, J. Keränen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)786-792
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume92
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

vapor phase epitaxy
hydrides
sapphire
molecular beam epitaxy
electrical properties
optical properties
defects
ultraviolet emission
positron annihilation
secondary ion mass spectrometry
templates
inversions
photoluminescence
impurities
transmission electron microscopy
silicon
oxygen

Keywords

  • gallium compounds
  • iii-v semiconductors
  • wide band gap semiconductors
  • silicon
  • semiconductor epitaxial layers
  • semiconductor growth
  • positron annihilation
  • vacancies (crystal)
  • impurity-vacancy interactions
  • photoluminescence
  • secondary ion mass spectra
  • transmission electron microscopy
  • dislocation structure
  • carrier density
  • molecular beam epitaxial growth

Cite this

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title = "Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire",
abstract = "Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.",
keywords = "gallium compounds, iii-v semiconductors, wide band gap semiconductors, silicon, semiconductor epitaxial layers, semiconductor growth, positron annihilation, vacancies (crystal), impurity-vacancy interactions, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectra, transmission electron microscopy, dislocation structure, carrier density, molecular beam epitaxial growth",
author = "P. Laukkanen and S. Lehkonen and P. Uusimaa and M. Pessa and Jari Likonen and J. Ker{\"a}nen",
year = "2002",
doi = "10.1063/1.1488241",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "786--792",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
issn = "0021-8979",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics AIP",
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}

Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire. / Laukkanen, P.; Lehkonen, S.; Uusimaa, P.; Pessa, M.; Likonen, Jari; Keränen, J.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2002, p. 786-792.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Structural, electrical, and optical properties of defects in Si-doped GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN on sapphire

AU - Laukkanen, P.

AU - Lehkonen, S.

AU - Uusimaa, P.

AU - Pessa, M.

AU - Likonen, Jari

AU - Keränen, J.

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.

AB - Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been utilized to grow Si-doped GaN layers on GaN/sapphire templates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. An extensive set of characterization techniques is applied to investigate the layers. Positron annihilation experiments indicate that the samples contain open volume defects, most likely clusters of vacancies and possibly Ga vacancy-donor complexes. The number of vacancy clusters decreases, as Si concentration is increased. Photoluminescence spectra show that while the absolute intensity of both the yellow and ultraviolet (UV) band-edge transitions increase with Si doping, the intensity ratio of yellow-to-UV emission is decreased. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that the impurity concentrations are in qualitative agreement with the carrier concentrations determined in electrical experiments. The data suggest further that silicon does not affect the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy reveals that MBE-grown GaN retains the threading dislocation structure of the GaN/sapphire substrate. The MBE layer is also shown to grow in the Ga face orientation, but some inversion boundaries are present in the epilayer.

KW - gallium compounds

KW - iii-v semiconductors

KW - wide band gap semiconductors

KW - silicon

KW - semiconductor epitaxial layers

KW - semiconductor growth

KW - positron annihilation

KW - vacancies (crystal)

KW - impurity-vacancy interactions

KW - photoluminescence

KW - secondary ion mass spectra

KW - transmission electron microscopy

KW - dislocation structure

KW - carrier density

KW - molecular beam epitaxial growth

U2 - 10.1063/1.1488241

DO - 10.1063/1.1488241

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 786

EP - 792

JO - Journal of Applied Physics

JF - Journal of Applied Physics

SN - 0021-8979

IS - 2

ER -