Water suspensions of cellulose nanofibres with xylan, xyloglucan and pectin were studied for foaming and structural properties as a new means for food structuring. The dispersions were analysed with rheological measurements, microscopy and optical coherence tomography. A combination of xylan with TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose produced a mixture with well-dispersed air bubbles, while the addition of pectin improved the elastic modulus, hardness and toughness of the structures. A similar structure was observed with native nanocellulose, but the elastic modulus was not as high. Shear flow caused cellulose nanofibres to form plate-like flocs in the suspension that accumulated near bubble interfaces. This tendency could be affected by adding laccase to the dispersion, but the effect was opposite for native and TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose. Nanocellulose type also influenced the interactions between nanofibers and other polysaccharides. For example, xyloglucan interacted strongly with TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose (high storage modulus) but not with native nanocellulose.
- cellulose nanofibre