Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene: Carbon nanoflower composite

Mirella Miettinen (Corresponding Author), Tiina Torvela, Carlsten Pfüller, Jouni Hokkinen, Manfred Ramsteiner, Luis Modesto-Lopez, Jorma Jokiniemi, Anna Lähde

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12% compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)214-224
    JournalCarbon
    Volume84
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Nanoflowers
    Graphite
    Graphene
    Carbon
    Electron diffraction
    Composite materials
    Chirality
    High resolution transmission electron microscopy
    Lithium
    Electronic properties
    Raman spectroscopy
    Nanocomposites
    Ions

    Keywords

    • multi-layer graphene
    • carbon

    Cite this

    Miettinen, M., Torvela, T., Pfüller, C., Hokkinen, J., Ramsteiner, M., Modesto-Lopez, L., ... Lähde, A. (2015). Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene: Carbon nanoflower composite. Carbon, 84, 214-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058
    Miettinen, Mirella ; Torvela, Tiina ; Pfüller, Carlsten ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Ramsteiner, Manfred ; Modesto-Lopez, Luis ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Lähde, Anna. / Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene : Carbon nanoflower composite. In: Carbon. 2015 ; Vol. 84. pp. 214-224.
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    abstract = "The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12{\%} compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.",
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    author = "Mirella Miettinen and Tiina Torvela and Carlsten Pf{\"u}ller and Jouni Hokkinen and Manfred Ramsteiner and Luis Modesto-Lopez and Jorma Jokiniemi and Anna L{\"a}hde",
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    Miettinen, M, Torvela, T, Pfüller, C, Hokkinen, J, Ramsteiner, M, Modesto-Lopez, L, Jokiniemi, J & Lähde, A 2015, 'Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene: Carbon nanoflower composite', Carbon, vol. 84, pp. 214-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058

    Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene : Carbon nanoflower composite. / Miettinen, Mirella (Corresponding Author); Torvela, Tiina; Pfüller, Carlsten; Hokkinen, Jouni; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Modesto-Lopez, Luis; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, Anna.

    In: Carbon, Vol. 84, 2015, p. 214-224.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Miettinen, Mirella

    AU - Torvela, Tiina

    AU - Pfüller, Carlsten

    AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

    AU - Ramsteiner, Manfred

    AU - Modesto-Lopez, Luis

    AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

    AU - Lähde, Anna

    PY - 2015

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    N2 - The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12% compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.

    AB - The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12% compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.

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    JO - Carbon

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    SN - 0008-6223

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