Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene

Carbon nanoflower composite

Mirella Miettinen (Corresponding Author), Tiina Torvela, Carlsten Pfüller, Jouni Hokkinen, Manfred Ramsteiner, Luis Modesto-Lopez, Jorma Jokiniemi, Anna Lähde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12% compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-224
JournalCarbon
Volume84
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Nanoflowers
Graphite
Graphene
Carbon
Electron diffraction
Composite materials
Chirality
High resolution transmission electron microscopy
Lithium
Electronic properties
Raman spectroscopy
Nanocomposites
Ions

Keywords

  • multi-layer graphene
  • carbon

Cite this

Miettinen, M., Torvela, T., Pfüller, C., Hokkinen, J., Ramsteiner, M., Modesto-Lopez, L., ... Lähde, A. (2015). Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene: Carbon nanoflower composite. Carbon, 84, 214-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058
Miettinen, Mirella ; Torvela, Tiina ; Pfüller, Carlsten ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Ramsteiner, Manfred ; Modesto-Lopez, Luis ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Lähde, Anna. / Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene : Carbon nanoflower composite. In: Carbon. 2015 ; Vol. 84. pp. 214-224.
@article{db073fc8056144f0b3cea8f8a7fd3a17,
title = "Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene: Carbon nanoflower composite",
abstract = "The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12{\%} compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.",
keywords = "multi-layer graphene, carbon",
author = "Mirella Miettinen and Tiina Torvela and Carlsten Pf{\"u}ller and Jouni Hokkinen and Manfred Ramsteiner and Luis Modesto-Lopez and Jorma Jokiniemi and Anna L{\"a}hde",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058",
language = "English",
volume = "84",
pages = "214--224",
journal = "Carbon",
issn = "0008-6223",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Miettinen, M, Torvela, T, Pfüller, C, Hokkinen, J, Ramsteiner, M, Modesto-Lopez, L, Jokiniemi, J & Lähde, A 2015, 'Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene: Carbon nanoflower composite', Carbon, vol. 84, pp. 214-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058

Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene : Carbon nanoflower composite. / Miettinen, Mirella (Corresponding Author); Torvela, Tiina; Pfüller, Carlsten; Hokkinen, Jouni; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Modesto-Lopez, Luis; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, Anna.

In: Carbon, Vol. 84, 2015, p. 214-224.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Structure of a new rotationally faulted multi-layer graphene

T2 - Carbon nanoflower composite

AU - Miettinen, Mirella

AU - Torvela, Tiina

AU - Pfüller, Carlsten

AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

AU - Ramsteiner, Manfred

AU - Modesto-Lopez, Luis

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Lähde, Anna

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12% compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.

AB - The structure of a new carbon–carbon nanocomposite that consists of thin (<15 layers) multi-layer graphene microsheets and carbon nanoflowers (CNF) was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Both SAED and Raman analyses verified that graphene layers in the sheets were rotated to each other. A typical rotation angle in SAED analysis was 30 ± 2° but also other rotation angles (e.g., 2 ± 1°, 12 ± 2°, 19 ± 2° and 25 ± 2°) were detected. Raman analysis designated the rotation angle of 11–12° which may indicate that this is the predominant rotation angle in the composite. Both folded and free standing, unfolded edges were present in the sheets. The free standing edges were rough and no preferred chirality was found. Overlapping boundary interfaces were dominant between the graphene domains in the sheets. These features may degrade the electronic properties of the composite from the ideal values. However, the interlayer distance in the sheets was increased ∼12% compared to graphite. This, together with the wrinkled network of the sheets and the CNFs that contain nanosize (∼5–10 nm) cavities, may increase, e.g., lithium-ion insertion capacity of the composite.

KW - multi-layer graphene

KW - carbon

U2 - 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058

DO - 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.11.058

M3 - Article

VL - 84

SP - 214

EP - 224

JO - Carbon

JF - Carbon

SN - 0008-6223

ER -