Study of CdTe/CdS-thin films by isotope dilution, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry

Rolf Rosenberg, Riitta Zilliacus, Eeva-Liisa Lakomaa, A. Rautiainen, Auli Mäkelä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thin polycrystalline CdTe films can be used as materials for solar cells. The CdTe surface is etched with H3PO4/HNO3 solution to remove soluble Cd compounds and to leave insoluble Te compounds on the surface and thus creating a layer between CdTe and the electrode material. Different analytical methods have been used for studying the effect of the etching procedure relating to the electrode deposition on the CdTe surface. The penetration of phosphorus from the etchant without an intentional CdTe doping may be beneficial for the thin film structure. Phosphorus has been determined by isotope dilution, and cadmium and tellurium by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the dissolved samples. All the samples have also been analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was shown that P penetrates the film. The first 40 nm contains P in a P/Cd atomic ratio of about 0.5. In the next layers the ratio is about 0.1. The etchant leaves a thin Te-enriched layer on the surface of the film. This was detected from the SIMS profile, but not from the diluted nitric acid dissolved fractions because of the low Te solubility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-10
Number of pages5
JournalFresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume354
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1996
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Neutron Activation Analysis
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Neutron activation analysis
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
Isotopes
Phosphorus
Dilution
Mass Spectrometry
Electrodes
Tellurium
Nitric Acid
Thin films
Cadmium
Solubility
Etching
Solar cells
Doping (additives)

Cite this

Rosenberg, Rolf ; Zilliacus, Riitta ; Lakomaa, Eeva-Liisa ; Rautiainen, A. ; Mäkelä, Auli. / Study of CdTe/CdS-thin films by isotope dilution, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. In: Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 1996 ; Vol. 354, No. 1. pp. 6-10.
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title = "Study of CdTe/CdS-thin films by isotope dilution, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry",
abstract = "Thin polycrystalline CdTe films can be used as materials for solar cells. The CdTe surface is etched with H3PO4/HNO3 solution to remove soluble Cd compounds and to leave insoluble Te compounds on the surface and thus creating a layer between CdTe and the electrode material. Different analytical methods have been used for studying the effect of the etching procedure relating to the electrode deposition on the CdTe surface. The penetration of phosphorus from the etchant without an intentional CdTe doping may be beneficial for the thin film structure. Phosphorus has been determined by isotope dilution, and cadmium and tellurium by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the dissolved samples. All the samples have also been analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was shown that P penetrates the film. The first 40 nm contains P in a P/Cd atomic ratio of about 0.5. In the next layers the ratio is about 0.1. The etchant leaves a thin Te-enriched layer on the surface of the film. This was detected from the SIMS profile, but not from the diluted nitric acid dissolved fractions because of the low Te solubility.",
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Study of CdTe/CdS-thin films by isotope dilution, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. / Rosenberg, Rolf; Zilliacus, Riitta; Lakomaa, Eeva-Liisa; Rautiainen, A.; Mäkelä, Auli.

In: Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 354, No. 1, 1996, p. 6-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Study of CdTe/CdS-thin films by isotope dilution, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry

AU - Rosenberg, Rolf

AU - Zilliacus, Riitta

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AU - Rautiainen, A.

AU - Mäkelä, Auli

PY - 1996

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N2 - Thin polycrystalline CdTe films can be used as materials for solar cells. The CdTe surface is etched with H3PO4/HNO3 solution to remove soluble Cd compounds and to leave insoluble Te compounds on the surface and thus creating a layer between CdTe and the electrode material. Different analytical methods have been used for studying the effect of the etching procedure relating to the electrode deposition on the CdTe surface. The penetration of phosphorus from the etchant without an intentional CdTe doping may be beneficial for the thin film structure. Phosphorus has been determined by isotope dilution, and cadmium and tellurium by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the dissolved samples. All the samples have also been analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was shown that P penetrates the film. The first 40 nm contains P in a P/Cd atomic ratio of about 0.5. In the next layers the ratio is about 0.1. The etchant leaves a thin Te-enriched layer on the surface of the film. This was detected from the SIMS profile, but not from the diluted nitric acid dissolved fractions because of the low Te solubility.

AB - Thin polycrystalline CdTe films can be used as materials for solar cells. The CdTe surface is etched with H3PO4/HNO3 solution to remove soluble Cd compounds and to leave insoluble Te compounds on the surface and thus creating a layer between CdTe and the electrode material. Different analytical methods have been used for studying the effect of the etching procedure relating to the electrode deposition on the CdTe surface. The penetration of phosphorus from the etchant without an intentional CdTe doping may be beneficial for the thin film structure. Phosphorus has been determined by isotope dilution, and cadmium and tellurium by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the dissolved samples. All the samples have also been analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was shown that P penetrates the film. The first 40 nm contains P in a P/Cd atomic ratio of about 0.5. In the next layers the ratio is about 0.1. The etchant leaves a thin Te-enriched layer on the surface of the film. This was detected from the SIMS profile, but not from the diluted nitric acid dissolved fractions because of the low Te solubility.

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DO - 10.1007/s002169600001

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