Study of Formaldehyde and Formic Acid Contamination Effect on PEMFC

Jaana Viitakangas, Jari Ihonen, Pauli Koski, Matti Reinikainen, Thor Anders Aarhaug

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)


    The contamination effect of formaldehyde (HCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH) was studied using state-of-the-art automotive PEMFC stacks and with high fuel utilization and automotive-type operation with hydrogen recirculation. The results, measured at current density of 0.6 A/cm², show that the contamination effect of formaldehyde was observable when the concentration was 2 ppm, 200 times higher than the current limit in the ISO 14687-2:2012 standard. The effect of formaldehyde was less than 10% compared to 2 ppm of CO in the same operating conditions. Moreover, the contamination effect of formic acid was barely measurable at 2 ppm, corresponding to a concentration 100 times the limit of the ISO standard. Thus, the limits of HCHO and HCOOH in the current ISO standard seem to be too strict.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)F718-F727
    JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2018
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) for the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative under grant agreement n° 621223.


    • PEMFC impurities
    • hydrogen fuel impurities
    • hydrogen fuel standard


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