Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source

Christian Hirschmann (Corresponding Author), J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, Satu Ojala, R.L. Keiski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A novel cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectrometer with mid-infrared quantum cascade laser was applied for selective and sensitive formaldehyde (CH2O) gas measurement. The spectrum of formaldehyde was measured from 1,772 to 1,777 cm−1 by tuning the laser with a spectral resolution of 0.018 cm−1. The band at 1,773.959 cm−1 was selected for data analysis, at which position the laser emitted 47 mW. In univariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ, 0.951 s) and the normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (3σ) for amplitude modulation (AM) were 1.6 ppbv and 7.32 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2 and for wavelength modulation (WM) 1.3 ppbv and 6.04 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2. In multivariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ) can be as low as 901 pptv (1,773.833–1,774.085 cm−1, 15 spectral points each 0.951 s) for AM and 623 pptv (1,773.743–1,774.265 cm−1, 30 spectral points each 0.951 s) for WM. Because measurement time increases in multivariate measurement, its application is justified only when interferents need to be resolved. Potential improvements of the system are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-610
JournalApplied Physics B: Lasers and Optics
Volume111
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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photoacoustic spectroscopy
quantum cascade lasers
formaldehyde
modulation
wavelengths
spectral resolution
infrared lasers
lasers
absorptivity
tuning
time measurement
spectrometers
gases

Cite this

Hirschmann, Christian ; Lehtinen, J. ; Uotila, J. ; Ojala, Satu ; Keiski, R.L. / Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source. In: Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics. 2013 ; Vol. 111, No. 4. pp. 603-610.
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abstract = "A novel cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectrometer with mid-infrared quantum cascade laser was applied for selective and sensitive formaldehyde (CH2O) gas measurement. The spectrum of formaldehyde was measured from 1,772 to 1,777 cm−1 by tuning the laser with a spectral resolution of 0.018 cm−1. The band at 1,773.959 cm−1 was selected for data analysis, at which position the laser emitted 47 mW. In univariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ, 0.951 s) and the normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (3σ) for amplitude modulation (AM) were 1.6 ppbv and 7.32 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2 and for wavelength modulation (WM) 1.3 ppbv and 6.04 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2. In multivariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ) can be as low as 901 pptv (1,773.833–1,774.085 cm−1, 15 spectral points each 0.951 s) for AM and 623 pptv (1,773.743–1,774.265 cm−1, 30 spectral points each 0.951 s) for WM. Because measurement time increases in multivariate measurement, its application is justified only when interferents need to be resolved. Potential improvements of the system are discussed.",
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Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source. / Hirschmann, Christian (Corresponding Author); Lehtinen, J.; Uotila, J.; Ojala, Satu; Keiski, R.L.

In: Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, Vol. 111, No. 4, 2013, p. 603-610.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AU - Hirschmann, Christian

AU - Lehtinen, J.

AU - Uotila, J.

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AU - Keiski, R.L.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - A novel cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectrometer with mid-infrared quantum cascade laser was applied for selective and sensitive formaldehyde (CH2O) gas measurement. The spectrum of formaldehyde was measured from 1,772 to 1,777 cm−1 by tuning the laser with a spectral resolution of 0.018 cm−1. The band at 1,773.959 cm−1 was selected for data analysis, at which position the laser emitted 47 mW. In univariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ, 0.951 s) and the normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (3σ) for amplitude modulation (AM) were 1.6 ppbv and 7.32 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2 and for wavelength modulation (WM) 1.3 ppbv and 6.04 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2. In multivariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ) can be as low as 901 pptv (1,773.833–1,774.085 cm−1, 15 spectral points each 0.951 s) for AM and 623 pptv (1,773.743–1,774.265 cm−1, 30 spectral points each 0.951 s) for WM. Because measurement time increases in multivariate measurement, its application is justified only when interferents need to be resolved. Potential improvements of the system are discussed.

AB - A novel cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectrometer with mid-infrared quantum cascade laser was applied for selective and sensitive formaldehyde (CH2O) gas measurement. The spectrum of formaldehyde was measured from 1,772 to 1,777 cm−1 by tuning the laser with a spectral resolution of 0.018 cm−1. The band at 1,773.959 cm−1 was selected for data analysis, at which position the laser emitted 47 mW. In univariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ, 0.951 s) and the normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (3σ) for amplitude modulation (AM) were 1.6 ppbv and 7.32 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2 and for wavelength modulation (WM) 1.3 ppbv and 6.04 × 10−10 W cm−1 (Hz)−1/2. In multivariate measurement, the detection limit (3σ) can be as low as 901 pptv (1,773.833–1,774.085 cm−1, 15 spectral points each 0.951 s) for AM and 623 pptv (1,773.743–1,774.265 cm−1, 30 spectral points each 0.951 s) for WM. Because measurement time increases in multivariate measurement, its application is justified only when interferents need to be resolved. Potential improvements of the system are discussed.

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