Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization

Jacob W. Kooi, Theodore J. Reck, Rodrigo A. Reeves, Andy K. Fung, Lorene A. Samoska, Mikko Varonen, William R. Deal, Xiaobing B. Mei, Richard Lai, Robert F. Jarnot, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Goutam Chattopadhyay

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number7911360
    Pages (from-to)335-346
    Number of pages12
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology
    Volume7
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Indium phosphide
    indium phosphides
    Low noise amplifiers
    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits
    low noise
    integrated circuits
    amplifiers
    microwaves
    Cryogenics
    Temperature
    Solid state physics
    Earth sciences
    Astrophysics
    Electronic guidance systems
    Crystal defects
    Power spectral density
    room temperature
    Impurities
    Cooling
    Specifications

    Keywords

    • Allan variance
    • cryogenics
    • direct detection
    • gain stability
    • heterodyne (down conversion) technique
    • noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD)
    • power spectral density (PSD)
    • responsivity
    • uncorrelated (white) noise
    • 1/f (flicker) noise

    Cite this

    Kooi, J. W., Reck, T. J., Reeves, R. A., Fung, A. K., Samoska, L. A., Varonen, M., ... Chattopadhyay, G. (2017). Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 7(3), 335-346. [7911360]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2688861
    Kooi, Jacob W. ; Reck, Theodore J. ; Reeves, Rodrigo A. ; Fung, Andy K. ; Samoska, Lorene A. ; Varonen, Mikko ; Deal, William R. ; Mei, Xiaobing B. ; Lai, Richard ; Jarnot, Robert F. ; Livesey, Nathaniel J. ; Chattopadhyay, Goutam. / Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization. In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 335-346.
    @article{0180748cb5b44af6a687cf4561c40a31,
    title = "Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization",
    abstract = "Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.",
    keywords = "Allan variance, cryogenics, direct detection, gain stability, heterodyne (down conversion) technique, noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), power spectral density (PSD), responsivity, uncorrelated (white) noise, 1/f (flicker) noise",
    author = "Kooi, {Jacob W.} and Reck, {Theodore J.} and Reeves, {Rodrigo A.} and Fung, {Andy K.} and Samoska, {Lorene A.} and Mikko Varonen and Deal, {William R.} and Mei, {Xiaobing B.} and Richard Lai and Jarnot, {Robert F.} and Livesey, {Nathaniel J.} and Goutam Chattopadhyay",
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    Kooi, JW, Reck, TJ, Reeves, RA, Fung, AK, Samoska, LA, Varonen, M, Deal, WR, Mei, XB, Lai, R, Jarnot, RF, Livesey, NJ & Chattopadhyay, G 2017, 'Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization', IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 3, 7911360, pp. 335-346. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2688861

    Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization. / Kooi, Jacob W.; Reck, Theodore J.; Reeves, Rodrigo A.; Fung, Andy K.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Varonen, Mikko; Deal, William R.; Mei, Xiaobing B.; Lai, Richard; Jarnot, Robert F.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam.

    In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 7911360, 01.05.2017, p. 335-346.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization

    AU - Kooi, Jacob W.

    AU - Reck, Theodore J.

    AU - Reeves, Rodrigo A.

    AU - Fung, Andy K.

    AU - Samoska, Lorene A.

    AU - Varonen, Mikko

    AU - Deal, William R.

    AU - Mei, Xiaobing B.

    AU - Lai, Richard

    AU - Jarnot, Robert F.

    AU - Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    AU - Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    PY - 2017/5/1

    Y1 - 2017/5/1

    N2 - Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.

    AB - Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.

    KW - Allan variance

    KW - cryogenics

    KW - direct detection

    KW - gain stability

    KW - heterodyne (down conversion) technique

    KW - noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD)

    KW - power spectral density (PSD)

    KW - responsivity

    KW - uncorrelated (white) noise

    KW - 1/f (flicker) noise

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    M3 - Article

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    EP - 346

    JO - IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology

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