Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization

Jacob W. Kooi, Theodore J. Reck, Rodrigo A. Reeves, Andy K. Fung, Lorene A. Samoska, Mikko Varonen, William R. Deal, Xiaobing B. Mei, Richard Lai, Robert F. Jarnot, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Goutam Chattopadhyay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7911360
Pages (from-to)335-346
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Indium phosphide
indium phosphides
Low noise amplifiers
Monolithic microwave integrated circuits
low noise
integrated circuits
amplifiers
microwaves
Cryogenics
Temperature
Solid state physics
Earth sciences
Astrophysics
Electronic guidance systems
Crystal defects
Power spectral density
room temperature
Impurities
Cooling
Specifications

Keywords

  • Allan variance
  • cryogenics
  • direct detection
  • gain stability
  • heterodyne (down conversion) technique
  • noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD)
  • power spectral density (PSD)
  • responsivity
  • uncorrelated (white) noise
  • 1/f (flicker) noise

Cite this

Kooi, J. W., Reck, T. J., Reeves, R. A., Fung, A. K., Samoska, L. A., Varonen, M., ... Chattopadhyay, G. (2017). Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 7(3), 335-346. [7911360]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2688861
Kooi, Jacob W. ; Reck, Theodore J. ; Reeves, Rodrigo A. ; Fung, Andy K. ; Samoska, Lorene A. ; Varonen, Mikko ; Deal, William R. ; Mei, Xiaobing B. ; Lai, Richard ; Jarnot, Robert F. ; Livesey, Nathaniel J. ; Chattopadhyay, Goutam. / Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization. In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 335-346.
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abstract = "Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.",
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author = "Kooi, {Jacob W.} and Reck, {Theodore J.} and Reeves, {Rodrigo A.} and Fung, {Andy K.} and Samoska, {Lorene A.} and Mikko Varonen and Deal, {William R.} and Mei, {Xiaobing B.} and Richard Lai and Jarnot, {Robert F.} and Livesey, {Nathaniel J.} and Goutam Chattopadhyay",
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Kooi, JW, Reck, TJ, Reeves, RA, Fung, AK, Samoska, LA, Varonen, M, Deal, WR, Mei, XB, Lai, R, Jarnot, RF, Livesey, NJ & Chattopadhyay, G 2017, 'Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization', IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 3, 7911360, pp. 335-346. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2688861

Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization. / Kooi, Jacob W.; Reck, Theodore J.; Reeves, Rodrigo A.; Fung, Andy K.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Varonen, Mikko; Deal, William R.; Mei, Xiaobing B.; Lai, Richard; Jarnot, Robert F.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam.

In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 7911360, 01.05.2017, p. 335-346.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Submillimeter InP MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier Gain Stability Characterization

AU - Kooi, Jacob W.

AU - Reck, Theodore J.

AU - Reeves, Rodrigo A.

AU - Fung, Andy K.

AU - Samoska, Lorene A.

AU - Varonen, Mikko

AU - Deal, William R.

AU - Mei, Xiaobing B.

AU - Lai, Richard

AU - Jarnot, Robert F.

AU - Livesey, Nathaniel J.

AU - Chattopadhyay, Goutam

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.

AB - Millimeter and submillimeter indium phosphide (InP) microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are increasingly used in applications spanning Earth science, astrophysics, and defense. In this paper, we characterize direct detection and heterodyne gain fluctuations of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) designed for the 200-670-GHz frequency range. Of the twelve MMIC LNAs, five pairs have also been measured in multistage or cascaded configuration. In direct detection mode, the MMICs room temperature (RT) 1/f noise spectrum and responsivity were measured. From these the power spectral density, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), equivalent system noise temperature (T DD sys), and low-frequency normalized gain fluctuations (ΔG/G) are derived. On the same set of MMIC LNAs, using a heterodyne down conversion technique, the Allan variance method is applied to obtain the Allan stability time and normalized 4-8 GHz gain fluctuation noise at both RT and two cryogenic temperatures. We find in the case of 35-, 30-, and 25-nm gate-length InP MMIC LNAs that the derived direct detection and heterodyne gain stability is highly process dependent with only a secondary dependence on gate periphery, the number of gate fingers, and/or gain stages. This observation confirms the underlying solid-state physics understanding that gain fluctuation noise is the result of a temporal distribution of the generation and recombination of electron free carriers due to lattice defects and surface impurities. Upon cooling below ∼ 66 K, it is observed that on average gain fluctuations increase by ≳2.2× and the Allan stability time decreases by ∼2.5×. The presented measurement results compare favorably to the ALMA system gain specification of ΔG/G ≤ 1.4E-4 from 0.05-100 s, and offers guidance for application of InP LNAs for RT and cryogenic direct detection and heterodyne systems.

KW - Allan variance

KW - cryogenics

KW - direct detection

KW - gain stability

KW - heterodyne (down conversion) technique

KW - noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD)

KW - power spectral density (PSD)

KW - responsivity

KW - uncorrelated (white) noise

KW - 1/f (flicker) noise

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U2 - 10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2688861

DO - 10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2688861

M3 - Article

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JO - IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology

JF - IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology

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