Sulfation of alkali halides in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor

Hao Wu (Corresponding Author), Patrik Yrjas, Pasi Vainikka, Daniel Lindberg, Mikko Hupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During biomass and waste combustion, high levels of alkali halides in the flue gas often lead to increased deposit formation and accelerated superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced either by co-combustion or by the use of sulfur-containing additives. A measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench-scale reactor to characterize the sulfation behaviors of alkali chloride and alkali bromide. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K). HCl and HBr gases were fed with the fluidization air to simulate co-firing of a halide-rich fuel with bark. SO2 and elemental S powder were used as additives to convert the alkali halide aerosols to less corrosive alkali sulfates. The sulfation behavior of alkali halides was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). The results indicated a higher tendency for sulfation of alkali chloride than of alkali bromide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-179
Number of pages7
JournalFuel
Volume177
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Alkali halides
Alkalies
Fluidized beds
Deposits
Flue gases
Aerosols
Bromides
Chlorides
Superheaters
Gas fuel measurement
Fluidization
Alkali Metals
Alkali metals
Caustics
Chemical analysis
Particle size analysis
Particles (particulate matter)
Biomass
Sulfur
Powders

Keywords

  • Aerosols
  • Alkali halides
  • Bubbling fluidized bed combustion
  • Sulfation

Cite this

Wu, H., Yrjas, P., Vainikka, P., Lindberg, D., & Hupa, M. (2016). Sulfation of alkali halides in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Fuel, 177, 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.03.005
Wu, Hao ; Yrjas, Patrik ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Lindberg, Daniel ; Hupa, Mikko. / Sulfation of alkali halides in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In: Fuel. 2016 ; Vol. 177. pp. 173-179.
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abstract = "During biomass and waste combustion, high levels of alkali halides in the flue gas often lead to increased deposit formation and accelerated superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced either by co-combustion or by the use of sulfur-containing additives. A measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench-scale reactor to characterize the sulfation behaviors of alkali chloride and alkali bromide. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K). HCl and HBr gases were fed with the fluidization air to simulate co-firing of a halide-rich fuel with bark. SO2 and elemental S powder were used as additives to convert the alkali halide aerosols to less corrosive alkali sulfates. The sulfation behavior of alkali halides was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). The results indicated a higher tendency for sulfation of alkali chloride than of alkali bromide.",
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Wu, H, Yrjas, P, Vainikka, P, Lindberg, D & Hupa, M 2016, 'Sulfation of alkali halides in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor', Fuel, vol. 177, pp. 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.03.005

Sulfation of alkali halides in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. / Wu, Hao (Corresponding Author); Yrjas, Patrik; Vainikka, Pasi; Lindberg, Daniel; Hupa, Mikko.

In: Fuel, Vol. 177, 01.08.2016, p. 173-179.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AB - During biomass and waste combustion, high levels of alkali halides in the flue gas often lead to increased deposit formation and accelerated superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced either by co-combustion or by the use of sulfur-containing additives. A measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench-scale reactor to characterize the sulfation behaviors of alkali chloride and alkali bromide. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K). HCl and HBr gases were fed with the fluidization air to simulate co-firing of a halide-rich fuel with bark. SO2 and elemental S powder were used as additives to convert the alkali halide aerosols to less corrosive alkali sulfates. The sulfation behavior of alkali halides was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). The results indicated a higher tendency for sulfation of alkali chloride than of alkali bromide.

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