Surface functionalized nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) film as a platform for immunoassays and diagnostics

Hannes Orelma, Ilari Filpponen, Leena Sisko Johansson, Monika Österberg, Orlando J. Rojas, Janne Laine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

135 Citations (Scopus)


We introduce a new method to modify films of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) to produce non-porous, water-resistant substrates for diagnostics. First, water resistant NFC films were prepared from mechanically disintegrated NFC hydrogel, and then their surfaces were carboxylated via TEMPO-mediated oxidation. Next, the topologically functionalized film was activated via EDS/ NHS chemistry, and its reactivity verified with bovine serum albumin and antihuman IgG. The surface carboxylation, EDC/NHS activation and the protein attachment were confirmed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, contact angle measurements, conductometric titrations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The surface morphology of the prepared films was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Finally, we demonstrate that antihuman IgG can be immobilized on the activated NFC surface using commercial piezoelectric inkjet printing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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