Surface melting of ice

Lasse Makkonen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    87 Citations (Scopus)


    The present theories of surface premelting are based on the assumed mechanism whereby a liquid layer is formed because the free energy of the surface is thus minimized. It is shown experimentally here that this mechanism is not possible in the case of ice, for which surface melting below 0 °C is, however, well documented. A mechanism of surface melting, unique for ice, is then proposed. It is based on a concept according to which the surface phase equilibrium temperature differs from that of the bulk material. The new theory predicts the onset temperature of premelting on ice in quantitative agreement with recent experimental data. It also explains regelation of ice and explains why water reaches a density maximum above its freezing point.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6196 - 6200
    Number of pages5
    JournalThe Journal of Physical Chemistry B
    Issue number32
    Publication statusPublished - 1997
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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