Surface melting of ice

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Abstract

The present theories of surface premelting are based on the assumed mechanism whereby a liquid layer is formed because the free energy of the surface is thus minimized. It is shown experimentally here that this mechanism is not possible in the case of ice, for which surface melting below 0 °C is, however, well documented. A mechanism of surface melting, unique for ice, is then proposed. It is based on a concept according to which the surface phase equilibrium temperature differs from that of the bulk material. The new theory predicts the onset temperature of premelting on ice in quantitative agreement with recent experimental data. It also explains regelation of ice and explains why water reaches a density maximum above its freezing point.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6196 - 6200
Number of pages5
JournalThe Journal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume101
Issue number32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1997
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Ice
ice
Melting
melting
Freezing
Phase equilibria
Free energy
melting points
free energy
Temperature
temperature
Water
Liquids
liquids
water

Cite this

Makkonen, Lasse. / Surface melting of ice. In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 1997 ; Vol. 101, No. 32. pp. 6196 - 6200.
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Surface melting of ice. / Makkonen, Lasse.

In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 101, No. 32, 1997, p. 6196 - 6200.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Surface melting of ice

AU - Makkonen, Lasse

N1 - Project code: R7SU00488

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - The present theories of surface premelting are based on the assumed mechanism whereby a liquid layer is formed because the free energy of the surface is thus minimized. It is shown experimentally here that this mechanism is not possible in the case of ice, for which surface melting below 0 °C is, however, well documented. A mechanism of surface melting, unique for ice, is then proposed. It is based on a concept according to which the surface phase equilibrium temperature differs from that of the bulk material. The new theory predicts the onset temperature of premelting on ice in quantitative agreement with recent experimental data. It also explains regelation of ice and explains why water reaches a density maximum above its freezing point.

AB - The present theories of surface premelting are based on the assumed mechanism whereby a liquid layer is formed because the free energy of the surface is thus minimized. It is shown experimentally here that this mechanism is not possible in the case of ice, for which surface melting below 0 °C is, however, well documented. A mechanism of surface melting, unique for ice, is then proposed. It is based on a concept according to which the surface phase equilibrium temperature differs from that of the bulk material. The new theory predicts the onset temperature of premelting on ice in quantitative agreement with recent experimental data. It also explains regelation of ice and explains why water reaches a density maximum above its freezing point.

U2 - 10.1021/jp963248c

DO - 10.1021/jp963248c

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 6196

EP - 6200

JO - The Journal of Physical Chemistry B

JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry B

SN - 1520-6106

IS - 32

ER -