Survey of methods for the study of the bentonite microstructure and its relevance to hydration

Torbjörn Carlsson

Research output: Book/ReportReport


The report is the result of a limited literature survey that focuses on methods for investigating the microstructure of water-saturated bentonite. Knowledge of the microstructure is important in order to assess the bentonite's functioning as a barrier material in, for example, the planned Finnish repository for spent nuclear fuel. The following analytical methods were identified as suitable for the study of the bentonite microstructure: X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), electrical resistivity measurements, mercury intrusion porosity (MIP), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), vibrational probe studies of water, surface area determination and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The authors subjective conclusion is that a combination of NMR, SAXS and surface area determination offers reasonably good possibilities to study the bentonite microstructure.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages29
ISBN (Print)951-38-5946-0
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes


  • Clays
  • Bentonite
  • physical properties
  • structure
  • microstructure
  • porosity
  • surface area
  • X-ray analysis
  • electron microscopy
  • NMR spectroscopy


Dive into the research topics of 'Survey of methods for the study of the bentonite microstructure and its relevance to hydration'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this