Sustainability and industrial symbiosis: The evolution of a Finnish forest industry complex

S. Pakarinen (Corresponding Author), T. Mattila, M. Melanen, A. Nissinen, Laura Sokka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An industrial symbiosis (IS) is a group of industrial plants and other actors which exchange energy, water, by-products and waste. This article studies the evolution of an IS centred around a Finnish pulp and paper mill and analyses how the operations of the case system developed in a more sustainable direction during the years 1890–2005. We build upon basic sustainability principles known as The Natural Step (TNS) System Conditions by identifying and selecting quantifiable indicators for each of the conditions in the case of our target symbiosis. The study reveals that the environmental impacts of the case IS became more far-reaching during the 110-year period studied. Emissions, however, decreased substantially after the 1970s due to tightening environmental legislation and other policy measures and the progress in environmental technology, not due to symbiosis-type of arrangements. There has been no strong driver for more symbiosis-like cooperation among the companies in this study. It appeared that the main motives for increased collaboration were economic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1393-1404
Number of pages12
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Volume54
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

symbiosis
sustainability
environmental technology
environmental legislation
forest industry
Sustainability
Forest industry
Industrial symbiosis
Symbiosis
mill
environmental impact
economics
energy
water

Keywords

  • Industrial ecology
  • symbiosis
  • history
  • forest indusstry
  • sustainability
  • The Natural Step
  • Finland

Cite this

Pakarinen, S. ; Mattila, T. ; Melanen, M. ; Nissinen, A. ; Sokka, Laura. / Sustainability and industrial symbiosis : The evolution of a Finnish forest industry complex. In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2010 ; Vol. 54, No. 12. pp. 1393-1404.
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Sustainability and industrial symbiosis : The evolution of a Finnish forest industry complex. / Pakarinen, S. (Corresponding Author); Mattila, T.; Melanen, M.; Nissinen, A.; Sokka, Laura.

In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 54, No. 12, 2010, p. 1393-1404.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sustainability and industrial symbiosis

T2 - The evolution of a Finnish forest industry complex

AU - Pakarinen, S.

AU - Mattila, T.

AU - Melanen, M.

AU - Nissinen, A.

AU - Sokka, Laura

PY - 2010

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AB - An industrial symbiosis (IS) is a group of industrial plants and other actors which exchange energy, water, by-products and waste. This article studies the evolution of an IS centred around a Finnish pulp and paper mill and analyses how the operations of the case system developed in a more sustainable direction during the years 1890–2005. We build upon basic sustainability principles known as The Natural Step (TNS) System Conditions by identifying and selecting quantifiable indicators for each of the conditions in the case of our target symbiosis. The study reveals that the environmental impacts of the case IS became more far-reaching during the 110-year period studied. Emissions, however, decreased substantially after the 1970s due to tightening environmental legislation and other policy measures and the progress in environmental technology, not due to symbiosis-type of arrangements. There has been no strong driver for more symbiosis-like cooperation among the companies in this study. It appeared that the main motives for increased collaboration were economic.

KW - Industrial ecology

KW - symbiosis

KW - history

KW - forest indusstry

KW - sustainability

KW - The Natural Step

KW - Finland

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DO - 10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.05.015

M3 - Article

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SP - 1393

EP - 1404

JO - Resources, Conservation and Recycling

JF - Resources, Conservation and Recycling

SN - 0921-3449

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ER -