Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe

Kati Koponen, Laura Sokka, Olli Salminen, Risto Sievänen, Kim Pingoud, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Johanna Routa, Tanja Ikonen, Tiina Koljonen, Eija Alakangas, Antti Asikainen, Kai Sipilä

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

Increased demand for wood in the bioeconomy and bioenergy production means increased pressure on forest resources. Policies emphasising the targets for bioenergy, such as the European Union 2020 targets for renewable energy, have evoked concern on the sufficiency of biomass resources. As forests have multiple roles in supplying raw materials for industry and energy production, climate change mitigation, and in provision of ecosystem and recreational services, comprehensive assessments are needed to reach balanced and sustainable use of forests. Careful management and sustainable use of forest resources can lead to greater climate benefits in the long run by preserving forests as a continuous storage of carbon, and a source of renewable materials and energy. This report summarises the research-based results of the use of forest biomass for energy in Northern European conditions. It discusses the trade-offs and winwin situations of growing forests, sequestration of carbon and using the wood also for energy - in an economically viable and ecologically sustainable manner. The topic is approached from several viewpoints: First, development of forest resources in the EU and in Finland is presented, and a background for the discussion on how much and what kind of wood is used for energy production is provided (Section 2). Second, ecological and climate impacts of the use of forest energy are discussed (Sections 3 and 4). Third, the role of forests in international climate policy and future EU regulations (Section 5), and the specific features of cascading use of wood in fibre producing countries (Section 6) are discussed. In addition, remarks on the economics and the future role of forest energy in lowcarbon scenarios are presented (Section 7). Finally, the conclusions and recommendations concerning forest energy use are provided (Section 8).
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages100
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8364-5
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology
Number237
ISSN2242-1211

Fingerprint

sustainability
energy
forest resource
bioenergy
Europe
carbon
biomass
climate effect
ecological impact
energy use
environmental policy
European Union
ecosystem
industry
climate
resource
economics

Keywords

  • forests
  • energy
  • scenarios
  • forest residues
  • climate impacts
  • ecological impacts
  • cascading
  • Finland

Cite this

Koponen, K., Sokka, L., Salminen, O., Sievänen, R., Pingoud, K., Ilvesniemi, H., ... Sipilä, K. (2015). Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 237
Koponen, Kati ; Sokka, Laura ; Salminen, Olli ; Sievänen, Risto ; Pingoud, Kim ; Ilvesniemi, Hannu ; Routa, Johanna ; Ikonen, Tanja ; Koljonen, Tiina ; Alakangas, Eija ; Asikainen, Antti ; Sipilä, Kai. / Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 100 p. (VTT Technology; No. 237).
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abstract = "Increased demand for wood in the bioeconomy and bioenergy production means increased pressure on forest resources. Policies emphasising the targets for bioenergy, such as the European Union 2020 targets for renewable energy, have evoked concern on the sufficiency of biomass resources. As forests have multiple roles in supplying raw materials for industry and energy production, climate change mitigation, and in provision of ecosystem and recreational services, comprehensive assessments are needed to reach balanced and sustainable use of forests. Careful management and sustainable use of forest resources can lead to greater climate benefits in the long run by preserving forests as a continuous storage of carbon, and a source of renewable materials and energy. This report summarises the research-based results of the use of forest biomass for energy in Northern European conditions. It discusses the trade-offs and winwin situations of growing forests, sequestration of carbon and using the wood also for energy - in an economically viable and ecologically sustainable manner. The topic is approached from several viewpoints: First, development of forest resources in the EU and in Finland is presented, and a background for the discussion on how much and what kind of wood is used for energy production is provided (Section 2). Second, ecological and climate impacts of the use of forest energy are discussed (Sections 3 and 4). Third, the role of forests in international climate policy and future EU regulations (Section 5), and the specific features of cascading use of wood in fibre producing countries (Section 6) are discussed. In addition, remarks on the economics and the future role of forest energy in lowcarbon scenarios are presented (Section 7). Finally, the conclusions and recommendations concerning forest energy use are provided (Section 8).",
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author = "Kati Koponen and Laura Sokka and Olli Salminen and Risto Siev{\"a}nen and Kim Pingoud and Hannu Ilvesniemi and Johanna Routa and Tanja Ikonen and Tiina Koljonen and Eija Alakangas and Antti Asikainen and Kai Sipil{\"a}",
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Koponen, K, Sokka, L, Salminen, O, Sievänen, R, Pingoud, K, Ilvesniemi, H, Routa, J, Ikonen, T, Koljonen, T, Alakangas, E, Asikainen, A & Sipilä, K 2015, Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe. VTT Technology, no. 237, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe. / Koponen, Kati; Sokka, Laura; Salminen, Olli; Sievänen, Risto; Pingoud, Kim; Ilvesniemi, Hannu; Routa, Johanna; Ikonen, Tanja; Koljonen, Tiina; Alakangas, Eija; Asikainen, Antti; Sipilä, Kai.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 100 p. (VTT Technology; No. 237).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe

AU - Koponen, Kati

AU - Sokka, Laura

AU - Salminen, Olli

AU - Sievänen, Risto

AU - Pingoud, Kim

AU - Ilvesniemi, Hannu

AU - Routa, Johanna

AU - Ikonen, Tanja

AU - Koljonen, Tiina

AU - Alakangas, Eija

AU - Asikainen, Antti

AU - Sipilä, Kai

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Increased demand for wood in the bioeconomy and bioenergy production means increased pressure on forest resources. Policies emphasising the targets for bioenergy, such as the European Union 2020 targets for renewable energy, have evoked concern on the sufficiency of biomass resources. As forests have multiple roles in supplying raw materials for industry and energy production, climate change mitigation, and in provision of ecosystem and recreational services, comprehensive assessments are needed to reach balanced and sustainable use of forests. Careful management and sustainable use of forest resources can lead to greater climate benefits in the long run by preserving forests as a continuous storage of carbon, and a source of renewable materials and energy. This report summarises the research-based results of the use of forest biomass for energy in Northern European conditions. It discusses the trade-offs and winwin situations of growing forests, sequestration of carbon and using the wood also for energy - in an economically viable and ecologically sustainable manner. The topic is approached from several viewpoints: First, development of forest resources in the EU and in Finland is presented, and a background for the discussion on how much and what kind of wood is used for energy production is provided (Section 2). Second, ecological and climate impacts of the use of forest energy are discussed (Sections 3 and 4). Third, the role of forests in international climate policy and future EU regulations (Section 5), and the specific features of cascading use of wood in fibre producing countries (Section 6) are discussed. In addition, remarks on the economics and the future role of forest energy in lowcarbon scenarios are presented (Section 7). Finally, the conclusions and recommendations concerning forest energy use are provided (Section 8).

AB - Increased demand for wood in the bioeconomy and bioenergy production means increased pressure on forest resources. Policies emphasising the targets for bioenergy, such as the European Union 2020 targets for renewable energy, have evoked concern on the sufficiency of biomass resources. As forests have multiple roles in supplying raw materials for industry and energy production, climate change mitigation, and in provision of ecosystem and recreational services, comprehensive assessments are needed to reach balanced and sustainable use of forests. Careful management and sustainable use of forest resources can lead to greater climate benefits in the long run by preserving forests as a continuous storage of carbon, and a source of renewable materials and energy. This report summarises the research-based results of the use of forest biomass for energy in Northern European conditions. It discusses the trade-offs and winwin situations of growing forests, sequestration of carbon and using the wood also for energy - in an economically viable and ecologically sustainable manner. The topic is approached from several viewpoints: First, development of forest resources in the EU and in Finland is presented, and a background for the discussion on how much and what kind of wood is used for energy production is provided (Section 2). Second, ecological and climate impacts of the use of forest energy are discussed (Sections 3 and 4). Third, the role of forests in international climate policy and future EU regulations (Section 5), and the specific features of cascading use of wood in fibre producing countries (Section 6) are discussed. In addition, remarks on the economics and the future role of forest energy in lowcarbon scenarios are presented (Section 7). Finally, the conclusions and recommendations concerning forest energy use are provided (Section 8).

KW - forests

KW - energy

KW - scenarios

KW - forest residues

KW - climate impacts

KW - ecological impacts

KW - cascading

KW - Finland

M3 - Report

T3 - VTT Technology

BT - Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Koponen K, Sokka L, Salminen O, Sievänen R, Pingoud K, Ilvesniemi H et al. Sustainability of forest energy in Northern Europe. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 100 p. (VTT Technology; No. 237).