Swollenin, a Trichoderma reesei protein with sequence similarity to the plant expansins, exhibits disruption activity on cellulosic materials

Markku Saloheimo, Marja Paloheimo, Satu Hakola, Jaakko Pere, Barbara Swanson, Eini Nyyssönen, Amit Bhatia, Michael Ward, Merja Penttilä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

280 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Plant cell wall proteins called expansins are thought to disrupt hydrogen bonding between cell wall polysaccharides without hydrolyzing them. We describe here a novel gene with sequence similarity to plant expansins, isolated from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei. The protein named swollenin has an N-terminal fungal type cellulose binding domain connected by a linker region to the expansin-like domain. The protein also contains regions similar to mammalian fibronectin type III repeats, found for the first time in a fungal protein. The swollenin gene is regulated in a largely similar manner as the T. reesei cellulase genes. The biological role of SWOI was studied by disrupting the swo1 gene from T. reesei. The disruption had no apparent effect on the growth rate on glucose or on different cellulosic carbon sources. Non-stringent Southern hybridization of Trichoderma genomic DNA with swo1 showed the presence of other swollenin-like genes, which could substitute for the loss of SWOI in the disruptant. The swollenin gene was expressed in yeast and Aspergillus niger var. awamori. Activity assays on cotton fibers and filter paper were performed with concentrated SWOI-containing yeast supernatant that disrupted the structure of the cotton fibers without detectable formation of reducing sugars. It also weakened filter paper as assayed by an extensometer. The SWOI protein was purified from A. niger var. awamori culture supernatant and used in an activity assay with Valonia cell walls. It disrupted the structure of the cell walls without producing detectable amounts of reducing sugars.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4202-4211
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
Volume269
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Trichoderma
Genes
Cell Wall
Cotton Fiber
Proteins
Cotton fibers
Aspergillus niger
Cells
Sugars
Yeast
Assays
Yeasts
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Dilatometers
Fungal Proteins
Cellulase
Aspergillus
Plant Cells
Hydrogen Bonding
Fungi

Keywords

  • Cellulase
  • Cellulose binding domain
  • Expansin
  • Regulation
  • Trichoderma

Cite this

Saloheimo, Markku ; Paloheimo, Marja ; Hakola, Satu ; Pere, Jaakko ; Swanson, Barbara ; Nyyssönen, Eini ; Bhatia, Amit ; Ward, Michael ; Penttilä, Merja. / Swollenin, a Trichoderma reesei protein with sequence similarity to the plant expansins, exhibits disruption activity on cellulosic materials. In: European Journal of Biochemistry. 2002 ; Vol. 269, No. 17. pp. 4202-4211.
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abstract = "Plant cell wall proteins called expansins are thought to disrupt hydrogen bonding between cell wall polysaccharides without hydrolyzing them. We describe here a novel gene with sequence similarity to plant expansins, isolated from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei. The protein named swollenin has an N-terminal fungal type cellulose binding domain connected by a linker region to the expansin-like domain. The protein also contains regions similar to mammalian fibronectin type III repeats, found for the first time in a fungal protein. The swollenin gene is regulated in a largely similar manner as the T. reesei cellulase genes. The biological role of SWOI was studied by disrupting the swo1 gene from T. reesei. The disruption had no apparent effect on the growth rate on glucose or on different cellulosic carbon sources. Non-stringent Southern hybridization of Trichoderma genomic DNA with swo1 showed the presence of other swollenin-like genes, which could substitute for the loss of SWOI in the disruptant. The swollenin gene was expressed in yeast and Aspergillus niger var. awamori. Activity assays on cotton fibers and filter paper were performed with concentrated SWOI-containing yeast supernatant that disrupted the structure of the cotton fibers without detectable formation of reducing sugars. It also weakened filter paper as assayed by an extensometer. The SWOI protein was purified from A. niger var. awamori culture supernatant and used in an activity assay with Valonia cell walls. It disrupted the structure of the cell walls without producing detectable amounts of reducing sugars.",
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Swollenin, a Trichoderma reesei protein with sequence similarity to the plant expansins, exhibits disruption activity on cellulosic materials. / Saloheimo, Markku; Paloheimo, Marja; Hakola, Satu; Pere, Jaakko; Swanson, Barbara; Nyyssönen, Eini; Bhatia, Amit; Ward, Michael; Penttilä, Merja.

In: European Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 269, No. 17, 25.09.2002, p. 4202-4211.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Swollenin, a Trichoderma reesei protein with sequence similarity to the plant expansins, exhibits disruption activity on cellulosic materials

AU - Saloheimo, Markku

AU - Paloheimo, Marja

AU - Hakola, Satu

AU - Pere, Jaakko

AU - Swanson, Barbara

AU - Nyyssönen, Eini

AU - Bhatia, Amit

AU - Ward, Michael

AU - Penttilä, Merja

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N2 - Plant cell wall proteins called expansins are thought to disrupt hydrogen bonding between cell wall polysaccharides without hydrolyzing them. We describe here a novel gene with sequence similarity to plant expansins, isolated from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei. The protein named swollenin has an N-terminal fungal type cellulose binding domain connected by a linker region to the expansin-like domain. The protein also contains regions similar to mammalian fibronectin type III repeats, found for the first time in a fungal protein. The swollenin gene is regulated in a largely similar manner as the T. reesei cellulase genes. The biological role of SWOI was studied by disrupting the swo1 gene from T. reesei. The disruption had no apparent effect on the growth rate on glucose or on different cellulosic carbon sources. Non-stringent Southern hybridization of Trichoderma genomic DNA with swo1 showed the presence of other swollenin-like genes, which could substitute for the loss of SWOI in the disruptant. The swollenin gene was expressed in yeast and Aspergillus niger var. awamori. Activity assays on cotton fibers and filter paper were performed with concentrated SWOI-containing yeast supernatant that disrupted the structure of the cotton fibers without detectable formation of reducing sugars. It also weakened filter paper as assayed by an extensometer. The SWOI protein was purified from A. niger var. awamori culture supernatant and used in an activity assay with Valonia cell walls. It disrupted the structure of the cell walls without producing detectable amounts of reducing sugars.

AB - Plant cell wall proteins called expansins are thought to disrupt hydrogen bonding between cell wall polysaccharides without hydrolyzing them. We describe here a novel gene with sequence similarity to plant expansins, isolated from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei. The protein named swollenin has an N-terminal fungal type cellulose binding domain connected by a linker region to the expansin-like domain. The protein also contains regions similar to mammalian fibronectin type III repeats, found for the first time in a fungal protein. The swollenin gene is regulated in a largely similar manner as the T. reesei cellulase genes. The biological role of SWOI was studied by disrupting the swo1 gene from T. reesei. The disruption had no apparent effect on the growth rate on glucose or on different cellulosic carbon sources. Non-stringent Southern hybridization of Trichoderma genomic DNA with swo1 showed the presence of other swollenin-like genes, which could substitute for the loss of SWOI in the disruptant. The swollenin gene was expressed in yeast and Aspergillus niger var. awamori. Activity assays on cotton fibers and filter paper were performed with concentrated SWOI-containing yeast supernatant that disrupted the structure of the cotton fibers without detectable formation of reducing sugars. It also weakened filter paper as assayed by an extensometer. The SWOI protein was purified from A. niger var. awamori culture supernatant and used in an activity assay with Valonia cell walls. It disrupted the structure of the cell walls without producing detectable amounts of reducing sugars.

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