Synthesis and characterization of optical sol–gel adhesive for military protective polycarbonate resin

Mikko Keränen, Marcin Gnyba, Paavo Raerinne, Terho Kololuoma, Arto Maaninen, Juha Rantala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Sol–gel adhesive material for isostatic hotpressing lamination process was synthesized using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTES), 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS) and methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) as precursors. Reaction dynamics between APTES and GPTS was followed on-line with Raman spectroscopy. The lamination process was optimized by varying hotpressing times and pressures at the constant temperature. Mechanical shear strength properties were found to be excellent for studied composition, 25–30 kg/cm2 at its best. One possible application of laminated polycarbonate (PC) structure is a soldier helmet visor. Therefore, the ballistic protection properties were tested by shooting with 1.1 gram standard fragment, and determining the v50 velocity value, which corresponds to 50% perforation. The laminated structure gave 5.7% better protection compared with the solid polycarbonate. The laminated components were found to have high optical transparency at the visible wavelengths as well as high environmental stability.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369 - 372
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • sol gel
  • optical adhesive
  • lamination
  • raman spectroscopy
  • ballistic protection

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