Synthesis of a CFD benchmark exercise based on a test in the PANDA facility addressing the stratification erosion by a vertical jet in presence of a flow obstruction

Michele Andreani (Corresponding Author), Avinash J. Gaikwad, Sunil Ganju, Bhuvaneshwar Gera, Sergey Grigoryev, Luis Enrique Herranz, Risto Huhtanen, Vivek Kale, Anton Kanaev, Ralf Kapulla, Stephan Kelm, Jongtae Kim, Takeshi Nishimura, Domenico Paladino, Sidharth Paranjape, Berthold Schramm, Medhat Sharabi, Feng Shen, Bai Wei, Daqiang Yan & 1 others Rongjin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The benchmark exercise discussed in this paper was conducted within the OECD/NEA project HYMERES. The specific experiment in the PANDA facility chosen for the present benchmark addresses the stratification erosion in a vessel where the upper region contained initially a mixture of steam and helium, and the remaining volume was filled with steam. The mixing is induced by a vertical steam jet, which originates from the exit of a circular pipe located below the bottom of the helium-rich layer. The stratification erosion process is somewhat slowed down by a small circular plate above the jet source. The exercise consisted of a blind phase, and an open phase. Two sets of blind simulations were requested: one set obtained using a “common model”, and a second set produced by a “best estimate” model. For the “common model”, a list of recommendations was given, whereas for the “best estimate” model, each participant was free to choose the modelling approach. The submitted results for the erosion times were in a large band, and especially the large differences in the results with the “common model” were not expected. The results of the best estimate simulations showed that the combination of mesh and modelling approach can lead to a wide spread of results. The most important difficulty in interpreting the results and finding the reason of the large deviations was the lack of information on the velocity field downstream of the obstruction. Therefore, for the open phase extended data from auxiliary, “zero” tests (for similar conditions but without helium layer) were provided to the participants to permit a more basic validation of their models, using a “multi-step approach”. The step-by-step validation permitted some progress with respect to some of the items identified in the blind benchmark. However, large discrepancies with data in the final analyses of the test are observed, which cannot be easily attributed to specific model deficiencies or insufficient detail of the mesh. These results raised some questions in relation to best practice guidelines for the use of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes for containment analysis and indicated needs for further CFD-grade experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110177
Number of pages31
JournalNuclear Engineering and Design
Volume354
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

physical exercise
computational fluid dynamics
stratification
erosion
Erosion
Computational fluid dynamics
Helium
synthesis
Steam
steam
helium
mesh
estimates
circular plates
containment
OECD
test
recommendations
lists
modeling

Keywords

  • Benchmark
  • Buoyant jet
  • Containment
  • PANDA
  • Stratification erosion

Cite this

Andreani, Michele ; Gaikwad, Avinash J. ; Ganju, Sunil ; Gera, Bhuvaneshwar ; Grigoryev, Sergey ; Herranz, Luis Enrique ; Huhtanen, Risto ; Kale, Vivek ; Kanaev, Anton ; Kapulla, Ralf ; Kelm, Stephan ; Kim, Jongtae ; Nishimura, Takeshi ; Paladino, Domenico ; Paranjape, Sidharth ; Schramm, Berthold ; Sharabi, Medhat ; Shen, Feng ; Wei, Bai ; Yan, Daqiang ; Zhang, Rongjin. / Synthesis of a CFD benchmark exercise based on a test in the PANDA facility addressing the stratification erosion by a vertical jet in presence of a flow obstruction. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2019 ; Vol. 354.
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abstract = "The benchmark exercise discussed in this paper was conducted within the OECD/NEA project HYMERES. The specific experiment in the PANDA facility chosen for the present benchmark addresses the stratification erosion in a vessel where the upper region contained initially a mixture of steam and helium, and the remaining volume was filled with steam. The mixing is induced by a vertical steam jet, which originates from the exit of a circular pipe located below the bottom of the helium-rich layer. The stratification erosion process is somewhat slowed down by a small circular plate above the jet source. The exercise consisted of a blind phase, and an open phase. Two sets of blind simulations were requested: one set obtained using a “common model”, and a second set produced by a “best estimate” model. For the “common model”, a list of recommendations was given, whereas for the “best estimate” model, each participant was free to choose the modelling approach. The submitted results for the erosion times were in a large band, and especially the large differences in the results with the “common model” were not expected. The results of the best estimate simulations showed that the combination of mesh and modelling approach can lead to a wide spread of results. The most important difficulty in interpreting the results and finding the reason of the large deviations was the lack of information on the velocity field downstream of the obstruction. Therefore, for the open phase extended data from auxiliary, “zero” tests (for similar conditions but without helium layer) were provided to the participants to permit a more basic validation of their models, using a “multi-step approach”. The step-by-step validation permitted some progress with respect to some of the items identified in the blind benchmark. However, large discrepancies with data in the final analyses of the test are observed, which cannot be easily attributed to specific model deficiencies or insufficient detail of the mesh. These results raised some questions in relation to best practice guidelines for the use of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes for containment analysis and indicated needs for further CFD-grade experiments.",
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Andreani, M, Gaikwad, AJ, Ganju, S, Gera, B, Grigoryev, S, Herranz, LE, Huhtanen, R, Kale, V, Kanaev, A, Kapulla, R, Kelm, S, Kim, J, Nishimura, T, Paladino, D, Paranjape, S, Schramm, B, Sharabi, M, Shen, F, Wei, B, Yan, D & Zhang, R 2019, 'Synthesis of a CFD benchmark exercise based on a test in the PANDA facility addressing the stratification erosion by a vertical jet in presence of a flow obstruction', Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 354, 110177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.110177

Synthesis of a CFD benchmark exercise based on a test in the PANDA facility addressing the stratification erosion by a vertical jet in presence of a flow obstruction. / Andreani, Michele (Corresponding Author); Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Ganju, Sunil; Gera, Bhuvaneshwar; Grigoryev, Sergey; Herranz, Luis Enrique; Huhtanen, Risto; Kale, Vivek; Kanaev, Anton; Kapulla, Ralf; Kelm, Stephan; Kim, Jongtae; Nishimura, Takeshi; Paladino, Domenico; Paranjape, Sidharth; Schramm, Berthold; Sharabi, Medhat; Shen, Feng; Wei, Bai; Yan, Daqiang; Zhang, Rongjin.

In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 354, 110177, 12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis of a CFD benchmark exercise based on a test in the PANDA facility addressing the stratification erosion by a vertical jet in presence of a flow obstruction

AU - Andreani, Michele

AU - Gaikwad, Avinash J.

AU - Ganju, Sunil

AU - Gera, Bhuvaneshwar

AU - Grigoryev, Sergey

AU - Herranz, Luis Enrique

AU - Huhtanen, Risto

AU - Kale, Vivek

AU - Kanaev, Anton

AU - Kapulla, Ralf

AU - Kelm, Stephan

AU - Kim, Jongtae

AU - Nishimura, Takeshi

AU - Paladino, Domenico

AU - Paranjape, Sidharth

AU - Schramm, Berthold

AU - Sharabi, Medhat

AU - Shen, Feng

AU - Wei, Bai

AU - Yan, Daqiang

AU - Zhang, Rongjin

PY - 2019/12

Y1 - 2019/12

N2 - The benchmark exercise discussed in this paper was conducted within the OECD/NEA project HYMERES. The specific experiment in the PANDA facility chosen for the present benchmark addresses the stratification erosion in a vessel where the upper region contained initially a mixture of steam and helium, and the remaining volume was filled with steam. The mixing is induced by a vertical steam jet, which originates from the exit of a circular pipe located below the bottom of the helium-rich layer. The stratification erosion process is somewhat slowed down by a small circular plate above the jet source. The exercise consisted of a blind phase, and an open phase. Two sets of blind simulations were requested: one set obtained using a “common model”, and a second set produced by a “best estimate” model. For the “common model”, a list of recommendations was given, whereas for the “best estimate” model, each participant was free to choose the modelling approach. The submitted results for the erosion times were in a large band, and especially the large differences in the results with the “common model” were not expected. The results of the best estimate simulations showed that the combination of mesh and modelling approach can lead to a wide spread of results. The most important difficulty in interpreting the results and finding the reason of the large deviations was the lack of information on the velocity field downstream of the obstruction. Therefore, for the open phase extended data from auxiliary, “zero” tests (for similar conditions but without helium layer) were provided to the participants to permit a more basic validation of their models, using a “multi-step approach”. The step-by-step validation permitted some progress with respect to some of the items identified in the blind benchmark. However, large discrepancies with data in the final analyses of the test are observed, which cannot be easily attributed to specific model deficiencies or insufficient detail of the mesh. These results raised some questions in relation to best practice guidelines for the use of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes for containment analysis and indicated needs for further CFD-grade experiments.

AB - The benchmark exercise discussed in this paper was conducted within the OECD/NEA project HYMERES. The specific experiment in the PANDA facility chosen for the present benchmark addresses the stratification erosion in a vessel where the upper region contained initially a mixture of steam and helium, and the remaining volume was filled with steam. The mixing is induced by a vertical steam jet, which originates from the exit of a circular pipe located below the bottom of the helium-rich layer. The stratification erosion process is somewhat slowed down by a small circular plate above the jet source. The exercise consisted of a blind phase, and an open phase. Two sets of blind simulations were requested: one set obtained using a “common model”, and a second set produced by a “best estimate” model. For the “common model”, a list of recommendations was given, whereas for the “best estimate” model, each participant was free to choose the modelling approach. The submitted results for the erosion times were in a large band, and especially the large differences in the results with the “common model” were not expected. The results of the best estimate simulations showed that the combination of mesh and modelling approach can lead to a wide spread of results. The most important difficulty in interpreting the results and finding the reason of the large deviations was the lack of information on the velocity field downstream of the obstruction. Therefore, for the open phase extended data from auxiliary, “zero” tests (for similar conditions but without helium layer) were provided to the participants to permit a more basic validation of their models, using a “multi-step approach”. The step-by-step validation permitted some progress with respect to some of the items identified in the blind benchmark. However, large discrepancies with data in the final analyses of the test are observed, which cannot be easily attributed to specific model deficiencies or insufficient detail of the mesh. These results raised some questions in relation to best practice guidelines for the use of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes for containment analysis and indicated needs for further CFD-grade experiments.

KW - Benchmark

KW - Buoyant jet

KW - Containment

KW - PANDA

KW - Stratification erosion

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