Synthesis of novel carbon nanostructures by annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

M Miettinen (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hokkinen, T Karhunen, T Torvela, C Pfüller, M Ramsteiner, Unto Tapper, Ari Auvinen, Jorma Jokiniemi, A Lähde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles was performed in argon at atmospheric pressure to enable formation of silicon carbide nanomaterials and/or carbon structures. Three precursor powders with increasing crystallinity and annealing temperatures from 1,900 to 2,600 °C were used to gain information about the effect of precursor properties (e.g. amorphous vs. nanocrystalline, carbon content) and annealing temperature on the produced materials. Three structures were found after annealing, i.e. silicon carbide crystals, carbon sheets and spherical carbon particles. The produced SiC crystals consisted of several polytypes. Low annealing temperature and increasing crystallinity of the precursor promoted the formation of the 3C-SiC polytype. Raman analysis indicated the presence of single-layer, undoped graphene in the sheets. The spherical carbon particles consisted of curved carbon layers growing from the amorphous Si-C core and forming a 'nanoflower' with a diameter below 60 nm. To our knowledge, the formation of this kind of structures has not been reported previously. The core was visible in transmission electron microscopy analysis at the annealing temperature of 1,900 °C, decreased in size with increasing temperature and disappeared above an annealing temperature of 2,200 °C. With increasing crystallinity of the precursor material, fewer layers (~5 with the most crystalline precursor) were detected in the carbon nanoflowers. The method presented opens up the possibility to produce new carbon nanostructures whose properties can be controlled by changing the properties of the precursor material or by adjusting an annealing temperature
Original languageEnglish
Article number2168
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Silicon
Nanostructures
Annealing
Atmospheric pressure
Nanoparticles
atmospheric pressure
Carbon
Synthesis
Precursor
nanoparticles
annealing
carbon
silicon
synthesis
Nanoflowers
crystallinity
Temperature
temperature
Silicon carbide
silicon carbides

Keywords

  • Si-C nanoparticles
  • induction heating
  • atmospheric pressure
  • SiC sublimation
  • 3C-SiC
  • graphene growth
  • nanocomposites

Cite this

Miettinen, M ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Karhunen, T ; Torvela, T ; Pfüller, C ; Ramsteiner, M ; Tapper, Unto ; Auvinen, Ari ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Lähde, A. / Synthesis of novel carbon nanostructures by annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure. In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2014 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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title = "Synthesis of novel carbon nanostructures by annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure",
abstract = "Annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles was performed in argon at atmospheric pressure to enable formation of silicon carbide nanomaterials and/or carbon structures. Three precursor powders with increasing crystallinity and annealing temperatures from 1,900 to 2,600 °C were used to gain information about the effect of precursor properties (e.g. amorphous vs. nanocrystalline, carbon content) and annealing temperature on the produced materials. Three structures were found after annealing, i.e. silicon carbide crystals, carbon sheets and spherical carbon particles. The produced SiC crystals consisted of several polytypes. Low annealing temperature and increasing crystallinity of the precursor promoted the formation of the 3C-SiC polytype. Raman analysis indicated the presence of single-layer, undoped graphene in the sheets. The spherical carbon particles consisted of curved carbon layers growing from the amorphous Si-C core and forming a 'nanoflower' with a diameter below 60 nm. To our knowledge, the formation of this kind of structures has not been reported previously. The core was visible in transmission electron microscopy analysis at the annealing temperature of 1,900 °C, decreased in size with increasing temperature and disappeared above an annealing temperature of 2,200 °C. With increasing crystallinity of the precursor material, fewer layers (~5 with the most crystalline precursor) were detected in the carbon nanoflowers. The method presented opens up the possibility to produce new carbon nanostructures whose properties can be controlled by changing the properties of the precursor material or by adjusting an annealing temperature",
keywords = "Si-C nanoparticles, induction heating, atmospheric pressure, SiC sublimation, 3C-SiC, graphene growth, nanocomposites",
author = "M Miettinen and Jouni Hokkinen and T Karhunen and T Torvela and C Pf{\"u}ller and M Ramsteiner and Unto Tapper and Ari Auvinen and Jorma Jokiniemi and A L{\"a}hde",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1007/s11051-013-2168-2",
language = "English",
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Miettinen, M, Hokkinen, J, Karhunen, T, Torvela, T, Pfüller, C, Ramsteiner, M, Tapper, U, Auvinen, A, Jokiniemi, J & Lähde, A 2014, 'Synthesis of novel carbon nanostructures by annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure', Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 16, no. 1, 2168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-013-2168-2

Synthesis of novel carbon nanostructures by annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure. / Miettinen, M (Corresponding Author); Hokkinen, Jouni; Karhunen, T; Torvela, T; Pfüller, C; Ramsteiner, M; Tapper, Unto; Auvinen, Ari; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, A.

In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2168, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis of novel carbon nanostructures by annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

AU - Miettinen, M

AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

AU - Karhunen, T

AU - Torvela, T

AU - Pfüller, C

AU - Ramsteiner, M

AU - Tapper, Unto

AU - Auvinen, Ari

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Lähde, A

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles was performed in argon at atmospheric pressure to enable formation of silicon carbide nanomaterials and/or carbon structures. Three precursor powders with increasing crystallinity and annealing temperatures from 1,900 to 2,600 °C were used to gain information about the effect of precursor properties (e.g. amorphous vs. nanocrystalline, carbon content) and annealing temperature on the produced materials. Three structures were found after annealing, i.e. silicon carbide crystals, carbon sheets and spherical carbon particles. The produced SiC crystals consisted of several polytypes. Low annealing temperature and increasing crystallinity of the precursor promoted the formation of the 3C-SiC polytype. Raman analysis indicated the presence of single-layer, undoped graphene in the sheets. The spherical carbon particles consisted of curved carbon layers growing from the amorphous Si-C core and forming a 'nanoflower' with a diameter below 60 nm. To our knowledge, the formation of this kind of structures has not been reported previously. The core was visible in transmission electron microscopy analysis at the annealing temperature of 1,900 °C, decreased in size with increasing temperature and disappeared above an annealing temperature of 2,200 °C. With increasing crystallinity of the precursor material, fewer layers (~5 with the most crystalline precursor) were detected in the carbon nanoflowers. The method presented opens up the possibility to produce new carbon nanostructures whose properties can be controlled by changing the properties of the precursor material or by adjusting an annealing temperature

AB - Annealing of silicon-carbon nanoparticles was performed in argon at atmospheric pressure to enable formation of silicon carbide nanomaterials and/or carbon structures. Three precursor powders with increasing crystallinity and annealing temperatures from 1,900 to 2,600 °C were used to gain information about the effect of precursor properties (e.g. amorphous vs. nanocrystalline, carbon content) and annealing temperature on the produced materials. Three structures were found after annealing, i.e. silicon carbide crystals, carbon sheets and spherical carbon particles. The produced SiC crystals consisted of several polytypes. Low annealing temperature and increasing crystallinity of the precursor promoted the formation of the 3C-SiC polytype. Raman analysis indicated the presence of single-layer, undoped graphene in the sheets. The spherical carbon particles consisted of curved carbon layers growing from the amorphous Si-C core and forming a 'nanoflower' with a diameter below 60 nm. To our knowledge, the formation of this kind of structures has not been reported previously. The core was visible in transmission electron microscopy analysis at the annealing temperature of 1,900 °C, decreased in size with increasing temperature and disappeared above an annealing temperature of 2,200 °C. With increasing crystallinity of the precursor material, fewer layers (~5 with the most crystalline precursor) were detected in the carbon nanoflowers. The method presented opens up the possibility to produce new carbon nanostructures whose properties can be controlled by changing the properties of the precursor material or by adjusting an annealing temperature

KW - Si-C nanoparticles

KW - induction heating

KW - atmospheric pressure

KW - SiC sublimation

KW - 3C-SiC

KW - graphene growth

KW - nanocomposites

U2 - 10.1007/s11051-013-2168-2

DO - 10.1007/s11051-013-2168-2

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - Journal of Nanoparticle Research

JF - Journal of Nanoparticle Research

SN - 1388-0764

IS - 1

M1 - 2168

ER -