As a simulation of the Elmendorf tearing test, a tearing test method using a tensile tester was proposed with the same mode of fracture, mode III. Tear indices by both tests were highly correlated for various machine-made papers and laboratory handsheets. The relation between tensile strength and tear strength using the tensile tester was similar to that between tensile and Elmendorf tear strengths in single-ply mode for both softwood and hardwood pulp sheets. The proposed tearing test is convenient especially for imaging techniques such as thermography, and can help give new insights into the tearing process of paper.
- Elmendorf tear
- Test methods