The IBIS Data Library (DL) is an annotated data library that contains practically all the monitored data and other clinical information from critically ill patients during surgery and in intensive care. The data have been collected at three sites: the intensive care unit of the Kuopio University Hospital, Finland; Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK. The purpose of the DL is to form the basis for development of biosignal interpretation methods in the Improved Monitoring for Brain Dysfunction in Intensive Care and Surgery project in the European Union (EU) BIOMED2 programme (BMH4-97-2570). The DL contains continuous electroencephalography signals, multimodal evoked potential recordings and diagnostic electrocardiography recorded during intensive care and surgery. In addition, signal types similar to those recorded during an earlier project, the EU-BIOMED1 project IMPROVE, are stored in the DL. In addition, trend data from patient monitors, laboratory data, annotations, nursing actions, and medications recorded and stored by a Patient Data Management System (PDMS) during routine care are included. The data obtained routinely are complemented by special annotations made by a physician who observes the patient during the data collection session. Annotations include, for example, assessment of the awareness of the patient and specific events during surgery not recorded routinely by the PDMS. Inclusion of information about the care plan and the aims of the care make the contents of the DL complete. The present paper describes the technical set-up used for recording of the DL and the contents of the DL. The paper also includes an appendix defining a new data format, the extended evoked potentials format, used for storage of sweep data in the DL.