Techno-economic prospects and desirability of 3D food printing: perspectives of industrial experts, researchers and consumers

Siddharth Jayaprakash (Corresponding Author), Jaakko Paasi, Kyösti Pennanen, Iñigo Flores Ituarte, Martina Lille, Jouni Partanen, Nesli Sözer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
81 Downloads (Pure)


3D food printing is an emerging food technology innovation that enables the personalization and on-demand production of edible products. While its academic and industrial relevance has increased over the past decade, the functional value of the technology remains largely unrealized on a commercial scale. This study aimed at updating the business outlook of 3D food printing so as to help entrepreneurs and researchers in the field to channel their research and development (R&D) activities. A three-phase mixed methods approach was utilized to gain perspectives of industrial experts, researchers, and potential consumers. Data were collected from two sets of interviews with experts, a survey with experts, and consumer focus group discussions. The results gave insights into key attributes and use cases for a 3D food printer system, including the techno-economic feasibility and consumer desirability of identified use cases. A business modelling workshop was then organized to translate these results into three refined value propositions for 3D food printing. Both the experts and consumers found personalized nutrition and convenience to be the most desirable aspects of 3D food printing. Accordingly, business models related to 3D printed snacks/meals in semi-public spaces such as fitness centers and hospitals were found to offer the highest business potential. While the technology might be mature enough at component level, the successful realization of such high-reward models however would require risk-taking during the developmental phase.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1725
Number of pages23
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3D food printing
  • mixed methods research
  • expert interview
  • techno-economic potential
  • personalized nutrion
  • business modeling


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