Technoeconomic assessment of direct biomass liquefaction to transportation fuels

David Elliott, E.G. Baker, David Beckman, Yrjö Solantausta, Virve Tulenheimo, S. Gevert, Christina Hörnell, Anders Östman, B. Kjellström

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    45 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper discusses the results of a technoeconomic assessment of direct biomass liquefaction processes converting wood to gasoline and diesel fuels. The study was carried out by the Working Group of the International Energy Agency Direct Biomass Liquefaction Activity, in which Canada, Finland, Sweden, and the US participated. The processes chosen for detailed analysis were Atmospheric Flash Pyrolysis (AFP) and Liquefaction In Pressurized Solvent (LIPS). The assessment covered three steps for each process from feed to final product:
    1. primary liquefaction to a crude oil product,
    2. catalytic hydrotreating to upgrade the crude product to a deoxygenated product oil,
    3. refining the deoxygenated product to gasoline and diesel fuel.
    Present technology cases and potential future technology cases were evaluated. A consistent analytical basis was used throughout to allow comparison of the processes. This assessment shows that AFP is more economical than LIPS both for the production of boiler fuel oil as the primary liquefaction product and for the production of gasoline and diesel fuel products. The potential for future cost reduction through research and development is also clearly demonstrated.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)251-269
    Issue number1-4
    Publication statusPublished - 1990
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • liquefaction
    • pyrolysis
    • hydrotreatment
    • gasoline
    • economic analysis
    • liquid fuels
    • oil
    • upgrading


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