Technological specialisation in Sweden and Finland 1963-97: Contrasting developments

Jani Saarinen, Svante Lingärde

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional


Technological differences between countries have been a widely discussed issue in economic history in recent years. Theories about early and late adopters of technology and catch-up processes, national innovation systems, and competitive advantages of countries, have been advanced and debated. In new growth theories, the expenditures in R&D have been used as a proxy, along with capital and knowledge, to measure "inputs" into technological development. The objective of this study is to analyses empirically Swedish and Finnish patenting in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and to advance possible explanations for their specialisation in different industrial branches during different periods of time, despite similar resource endowments. In order to achieve this objective, and place it in a context of long-run structural change, we shall use relative "revealed advantage" measures based on USPTO data along with OECD data on R&D, production and exports. We assume that, during different periods of time, the number of patents granted in a third country reflects the technological specialisation patterns, as well as the export profile, of the studied country at that particular point in time.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTechnology and Human Capital in Historical Perspective
EditorsJonas Ljundberg, Jan-Pieter Smits
Place of PublicationBasingstoke
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
ISBN (Electronic)978-0-230-52381-4
ISBN (Print)978-1-4039-2067-6, 978-1-349-51489-2
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material


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