Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion

Markus Hurskainen, Pasi Vainikka

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this chapter, technology options for solid biomass and waste fuel utilisation in large-scale combustion plants are presented with the focus on fuel flexible technologies allowing multi-fuel operation. Fuel flexibility (the ability to use various fuels) protects power plant investment from changes in competitiveness between different fuels, which can be caused, for example, by changes in legislation. In multi-fuel operation (burning various fuels at the same time), synergies between different types of fuels can be exploited allowing higher generation efficiency also from lower-quality fuels.

The three main combustion technologies for solid fuels are grate, fluidised-bed and pulverised-fuel combustion. Grate boilers are adaptable to various fuels but are quite sensitive to changes in fuel quality and have limited multi-fuel operation capability. Fluidised-bed boilers provide the best fuel flexibility. With circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers, biomass/waste fuels can be co-fired with coal on 0–100% share. Various technologies have been developed to enable co-firing biomass with coal in pulverised coal (PC) boilers as the enormous capacity of existing PC boilers offers huge potential for increasing biomass utilisation and economic benefits compared to new stand-alone biomass/waste plants. Capital costs are reduced markedly, and the high electrical efficiency of large PC boilers and the favourable properties of coal ash can be exploited. Three different routes can be taken to utilise co-firing in PC boilers: (1) direct co-firing, (2) indirect co-firing, and (3) parallel co-firing. In addition, a PC boiler can be converted into a bubbling fluidised-bed (BFB) boiler with attractive economics.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFuel Flexible Energy Generation
Subtitle of host publicationSolid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels
EditorsJohn Oakey
PublisherWoodhead Publishing
Chapter7
Pages177-199
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-78242-399-7
ISBN (Print)978-1-78242-378-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

Publication series

NameWoodhead Publishing Series in Energy
PublisherWoodhead Publishing
Volume91

Fingerprint

Boilers
Coal
Biomass
Pulverized fuel
Economics
Coal ash
Power plants
Costs

Cite this

Hurskainen, M., & Vainikka, P. (2016). Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion. In J. Oakey (Ed.), Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (pp. 177-199). Woodhead Publishing. Woodhead publishing series in energy, Vol.. 91 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-378-2.00007-9
Hurskainen, Markus ; Vainikka, Pasi. / Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion. Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. editor / John Oakey. Woodhead Publishing, 2016. pp. 177-199 (Woodhead publishing series in energy, Vol. 91).
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Hurskainen, M & Vainikka, P 2016, Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion. in J Oakey (ed.), Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. Woodhead Publishing, Woodhead publishing series in energy, vol. 91, pp. 177-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-378-2.00007-9

Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion. / Hurskainen, Markus; Vainikka, Pasi.

Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. ed. / John Oakey. Woodhead Publishing, 2016. p. 177-199 (Woodhead publishing series in energy, Vol. 91).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

TY - CHAP

T1 - Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion

AU - Hurskainen, Markus

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - In this chapter, technology options for solid biomass and waste fuel utilisation in large-scale combustion plants are presented with the focus on fuel flexible technologies allowing multi-fuel operation. Fuel flexibility (the ability to use various fuels) protects power plant investment from changes in competitiveness between different fuels, which can be caused, for example, by changes in legislation. In multi-fuel operation (burning various fuels at the same time), synergies between different types of fuels can be exploited allowing higher generation efficiency also from lower-quality fuels.The three main combustion technologies for solid fuels are grate, fluidised-bed and pulverised-fuel combustion. Grate boilers are adaptable to various fuels but are quite sensitive to changes in fuel quality and have limited multi-fuel operation capability. Fluidised-bed boilers provide the best fuel flexibility. With circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers, biomass/waste fuels can be co-fired with coal on 0–100% share. Various technologies have been developed to enable co-firing biomass with coal in pulverised coal (PC) boilers as the enormous capacity of existing PC boilers offers huge potential for increasing biomass utilisation and economic benefits compared to new stand-alone biomass/waste plants. Capital costs are reduced markedly, and the high electrical efficiency of large PC boilers and the favourable properties of coal ash can be exploited. Three different routes can be taken to utilise co-firing in PC boilers: (1) direct co-firing, (2) indirect co-firing, and (3) parallel co-firing. In addition, a PC boiler can be converted into a bubbling fluidised-bed (BFB) boiler with attractive economics.

AB - In this chapter, technology options for solid biomass and waste fuel utilisation in large-scale combustion plants are presented with the focus on fuel flexible technologies allowing multi-fuel operation. Fuel flexibility (the ability to use various fuels) protects power plant investment from changes in competitiveness between different fuels, which can be caused, for example, by changes in legislation. In multi-fuel operation (burning various fuels at the same time), synergies between different types of fuels can be exploited allowing higher generation efficiency also from lower-quality fuels.The three main combustion technologies for solid fuels are grate, fluidised-bed and pulverised-fuel combustion. Grate boilers are adaptable to various fuels but are quite sensitive to changes in fuel quality and have limited multi-fuel operation capability. Fluidised-bed boilers provide the best fuel flexibility. With circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers, biomass/waste fuels can be co-fired with coal on 0–100% share. Various technologies have been developed to enable co-firing biomass with coal in pulverised coal (PC) boilers as the enormous capacity of existing PC boilers offers huge potential for increasing biomass utilisation and economic benefits compared to new stand-alone biomass/waste plants. Capital costs are reduced markedly, and the high electrical efficiency of large PC boilers and the favourable properties of coal ash can be exploited. Three different routes can be taken to utilise co-firing in PC boilers: (1) direct co-firing, (2) indirect co-firing, and (3) parallel co-firing. In addition, a PC boiler can be converted into a bubbling fluidised-bed (BFB) boiler with attractive economics.

U2 - 10.1016/B978-1-78242-378-2.00007-9

DO - 10.1016/B978-1-78242-378-2.00007-9

M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 978-1-78242-378-2

T3 - Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

SP - 177

EP - 199

BT - Fuel Flexible Energy Generation

A2 - Oakey, John

PB - Woodhead Publishing

ER -

Hurskainen M, Vainikka P. Technology options for large-scale solid-fuel combustion. In Oakey J, editor, Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. Woodhead Publishing. 2016. p. 177-199. (Woodhead publishing series in energy, Vol. 91). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-378-2.00007-9