Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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    Abstract

    Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lamé and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lamé mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lamé-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium
    PublisherIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    Pages1952-1955
    Number of pages4
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4577-1252-4, 978-1-4577-1251-7
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4577-1253-1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    EventIEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2011 - Orlando, United States
    Duration: 18 Oct 201121 Oct 2011

    Conference

    ConferenceIEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2011
    Abbreviated titleIUS 2011
    CountryUnited States
    CityOrlando
    Period18/10/1121/10/11

    Fingerprint

    temperature compensation
    microelectromechanical systems
    resonators
    silicon
    coefficients
    temperature
    valleys
    phosphorus
    vibration mode
    germanium
    boron
    elastic properties
    crystals

    Cite this

    Pensala, T., Jaakkola, A., Prunnila, M., & Dekker, J. R. (2011). Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. In 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (pp. 1952-1955). IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers . https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486
    Pensala, Tuomas ; Jaakkola, Antti ; Prunnila, Mika ; Dekker, James R. / Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers , 2011. pp. 1952-1955
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    title = "Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping",
    abstract = "Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lam{\'e} and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lam{\'e} mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lam{\'e}-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.",
    author = "Tuomas Pensala and Antti Jaakkola and Mika Prunnila and Dekker, {James R.}",
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    doi = "10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "978-1-4577-1253-1",
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    Pensala, T, Jaakkola, A, Prunnila, M & Dekker, JR 2011, Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. in 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers , pp. 1952-1955, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2011, Orlando, United States, 18/10/11. https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486

    Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. / Pensala, Tuomas; Jaakkola, Antti; Prunnila, Mika; Dekker, James R.

    2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers , 2011. p. 1952-1955.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping

    AU - Pensala, Tuomas

    AU - Jaakkola, Antti

    AU - Prunnila, Mika

    AU - Dekker, James R.

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lamé and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lamé mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lamé-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.

    AB - Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lamé and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lamé mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lamé-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.

    U2 - 10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486

    DO - 10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 978-1-4577-1253-1

    SP - 1952

    EP - 1955

    BT - 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium

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    Pensala T, Jaakkola A, Prunnila M, Dekker JR. Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. In 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers . 2011. p. 1952-1955 https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486