Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping

Tuomas Pensala, Antti Jaakkola, Mika Prunnila, James R. Dekker

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lamé and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lamé mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lamé-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE
Pages1952-1955
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4577-1252-4, 978-1-4577-1251-7
ISBN (Print)978-1-4577-1253-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventIEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2011 - Orlando, United States
Duration: 18 Oct 201121 Oct 2011

Publication series

Name
ISSN (Print)1051-0117
ISSN (Electronic)1948-5727

Conference

ConferenceIEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2011
Abbreviated titleIUS 2011
CountryUnited States
CityOrlando
Period18/10/1121/10/11

Fingerprint

temperature compensation
microelectromechanical systems
resonators
silicon
coefficients
temperature
valleys
phosphorus
vibration mode
germanium
boron
elastic properties
crystals

Cite this

Pensala, T., Jaakkola, A., Prunnila, M., & Dekker, J. R. (2011). Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. In 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (pp. 1952-1955). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486
Pensala, Tuomas ; Jaakkola, Antti ; Prunnila, Mika ; Dekker, James R. / Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, 2011. pp. 1952-1955
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abstract = "Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lam{\'e} and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lam{\'e} mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lam{\'e}-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.",
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Pensala, T, Jaakkola, A, Prunnila, M & Dekker, JR 2011, Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. in 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, pp. 1952-1955, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2011, Orlando, United States, 18/10/11. https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486

Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. / Pensala, Tuomas; Jaakkola, Antti; Prunnila, Mika; Dekker, James R.

2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, 2011. p. 1952-1955.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping

AU - Pensala, Tuomas

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AU - Prunnila, Mika

AU - Dekker, James R.

PY - 2011

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N2 - Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lamé and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lamé mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lamé-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.

AB - Passive temperature compensation of silicon MEMS resonators based on heavy n- and p-type doping is studied. Resonators are fabricated utilizing silicon with phosphorus doping level of 5·10 19 cm -3 and boron doping levels of 5·10 19 cm -3 and 2 · 10 20 cm -3 , the latter being stress compensated with germanium. The temperature behavior of the resonance frequencies of Lamé and square extensional (SE) modes is measured. Depending on the vibration mode and crystal orientation, significant temperature compensation effects are observed: as a result of heavy n-type doping the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the SE mode is reduced from -32 ppm/K to ca. -1 ppm/K, while a Lamé mode resonator exhibits an overcompensated TCF of +18 ppm/K. In p-type resonators a TCF of ca. -2 ppm/K is observed in a Lamé-mode. Keyes' [1] theory of free carrier contribution to the elastic constants of many-valley semiconductors is used to predict the temperature behavior of the n-type resonators. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed temperature behavior. The n-type doping can be applied to the TCF reduction of a large class of resonators and shows great potential in improving Si resonator performance.

U2 - 10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486

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Pensala T, Jaakkola A, Prunnila M, Dekker JR. Temperature compensation of silicon MEMS Resonators by Heavy Doping. In 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE. 2011. p. 1952-1955 https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0486