Athena is a European X-ray observatory, scheduled for launch in ∼ 2028. Athena will employ a high-resolution imaging spectrometer called X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), consisting of an array of ∼ 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter pixels. For the readout of X-IFU, we are developing frequency domain multiplexing, which is the baseline readout system. In this paper, we report on the performance of a TES X-ray calorimeter array fabricated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at MHz frequencies for the baseline of X-IFU detector. During single-pixel AC bias characterization, we measured X-ray energy resolutions (at 6 keV) of about 2.9 eV at both 2.3 and 3.7 MHz. Furthermore, in the multiplexing mode, we measured X-ray energy resolutions of about 2.9 eV at 1.3 and 1.7 MHz.
- Frequency domain multiplexing
- Transition edge sensors
- X-ray microcalorimeter