Text entry by gazing and smiling

Outi Tuisku, Veikko Surakka, Ville Rantanen, Toni Vanhala, Jukka Lekkala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n =10) to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n =12) was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm) and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC) value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD) error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Article number218084
Number of pages13
JournalAdvances in Human-Computer Interaction
Volume2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Tuisku, O., Surakka, V., Rantanen, V., Vanhala, T., & Lekkala, J. (2013). Text entry by gazing and smiling. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2013, [218084]. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/218084
Tuisku, Outi ; Surakka, Veikko ; Rantanen, Ville ; Vanhala, Toni ; Lekkala, Jukka. / Text entry by gazing and smiling. In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction. 2013 ; Vol. 2013.
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abstract = "Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n =10) to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n =12) was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm) and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC) value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD) error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.",
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Tuisku, O, Surakka, V, Rantanen, V, Vanhala, T & Lekkala, J 2013, 'Text entry by gazing and smiling', Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 2013, 218084. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/218084

Text entry by gazing and smiling. / Tuisku, Outi; Surakka, Veikko; Rantanen, Ville; Vanhala, Toni; Lekkala, Jukka.

In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 2013, 218084, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Tuisku, Outi

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N2 - Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n =10) to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n =12) was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm) and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC) value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD) error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

AB - Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n =10) to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n =12) was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm) and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC) value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD) error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

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Tuisku O, Surakka V, Rantanen V, Vanhala T, Lekkala J. Text entry by gazing and smiling. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction. 2013;2013. 218084. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/218084