The ash formation during co-combustion of wood and sludge in industrial fluidized bed boilers

Jouko Latva-Somppi (Corresponding Author), Esko Kauppinen, Tuomas Valmari, Petri Ahonen, Abhijit Gurav, Toivo Kodas, Bo Johanson

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42 Citations (Scopus)


Ashes from an industrial bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers burning biomass and paper mill sludges are characterized. Bulk sampling was carried out with a simultaneous low pressure impactor sampling (BLPI) and with on-line monitoring of submicron ash gas phase size distribution.
The principal ash forming mechanism was sintering of 1–10 μm inorganic paper filler particles, into 5–200 μm ash agglomerates. Despite few spherical particles no ash melting was detected. The fraction of vaporized and condensed ash was below 0.1 mass% in both units as determined with BLPI and with on-line monitoring. According to elemental mass size distributions no significant vaporization of any main element occurred including sodium and potassium.
Wall deposit observed on refractory lining in BFB furnace was composed of sintered ash binding large ash and sand particles in the structure. No molten phases were detected to participate in the layer growth. Most quartz sand grains in the bed were covered by a thin layer of small ash particles, below 5 μm in size.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-94
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 1998
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • fluidized beds


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