The combination of transformed and constrained Gibbs energies

Peter Blomberg (Corresponding Author), Pertti Koukkari

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Gibbs free energy is the thermodynamic potential representing the fundamental equation at constant temperature, pressure, and molar amounts. Transformed Gibbs energies are important for biochemical systems because the local concentrations within cell compartments cannot yet be determined accurately. The method of Constrained Gibbs Energies adds kinetic reaction extent limitations to the internal constraints of the system thus extending the range of applicability of equilibrium thermodynamics from predefined constraints to dynamic constraints, e.g., adding time-dependent constraints of irreversible chemical change. In this article, the implementation and use of Transformed Gibbs Energies in the Gibbs energy minimization framework is demonstrated with educational examples. The combined method has the advantage of being able to calculate transient thermodynamic properties during dynamic simulation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)81 - 88
    Number of pages8
    JournalMathematical Biosciences
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2009
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Transformed Gibbs energy
    • Constrained Gibbs energy
    • Biochemical thermodynamics
    • Gibbs energy minimization
    • Legendre transform


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