The Deformation, Strain Hardening, and Wear Behavior of Chromium-Alloyed Hadfield Steel in Abrasive and Impact Conditions

Matti Lindroos (Corresponding Author), Marian Apostol, Vuokko Heino, Kati Valtonen, Anssi Laukkanen, Kenneth Holmberg, Veli-Tapani Kuokkala

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    69 Citations (Scopus)


    The alloying of Hadfield steels aims at enhanced mechanical properties and improvements in the wear resistance. In this work, the impact and abrasive properties of a chromium-alloyed high-manganese Hadfield steel were experimentally studied using a wide variety of testing techniques and characterization methods. In addition, an in-service sample was characterized to identify the wear and hardening mechanisms in a real application (jaw crusher). The dynamic mechanical behavior of the steel was determined using the Hopkinson split bar technique. The abrasion properties were studied with three-body abrasion tests using several different natural abrasives. The effects of existing plastic strain and normal loading on the surface hardening and wear rate were further investigated with scratch testing. High-velocity impact testing was performed to evaluate the effect of pre-strain on the impact wear behavior of the material. It was shown that the dynamic loading affects both the yield behavior and the strain hardening rate of the studied steel. The connection between pre-strain, hardness, and wear rate in abrasion was established. In impact conditions, plastic straining of the surface layer first has a positive effect on the wear resistance, but when strain hardening reached the observed ductility limit, it showed an adverse effect on the material's performance. The addition of chromium and an increase in the manganese content from the nominal ASTM Hadfield composition provided some improvements in the strength, ductility, and surface hardening of the studied steel.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number24
    JournalTribology Letters
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • hadfield manganese steel
    • work hardening
    • high strain rate
    • abrasive wear
    • impact wear
    • plasticity
    • ProperTune


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