The DEMO wall load challenge

R. Wenninger, R. Albanese, R. Ambrosino, F. Arbeiter, J. Aubert, C. Bachmann, L. Barbato, T. Barrett, M. Beckers, W. Biel, L. Boccaccini, D. Carralero, D. Coster, T. Eich, A. Fasoli, G. Federici, M. Firdaouss, J. Graves, J. Horacek, M. KovariS. Lanthaler, V. Loschiavo, C. Lowry, H. Lux, G. Maddaluno, F. Maviglia, R. Mitteau, R. Neu, D. Pfefferle, K. Schmid, M. Siccinio, B. Sieglin, C. Silva, A. Snicker, F. Subba, J. Varje, H. Zohm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m-2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m-2 for the design assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m-2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m-2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number046002
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume57
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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engineering
heat
physics
baffles
consolidation
radiation
estimates
penalties
heat flux
charged particles
flux density
optimization
configurations

Keywords

  • DEMO
  • first wall
  • power loads

Cite this

Wenninger, R., Albanese, R., Ambrosino, R., Arbeiter, F., Aubert, J., Bachmann, C., ... Zohm, H. (2017). The DEMO wall load challenge. Nuclear Fusion, 57(4), [046002]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4
Wenninger, R. ; Albanese, R. ; Ambrosino, R. ; Arbeiter, F. ; Aubert, J. ; Bachmann, C. ; Barbato, L. ; Barrett, T. ; Beckers, M. ; Biel, W. ; Boccaccini, L. ; Carralero, D. ; Coster, D. ; Eich, T. ; Fasoli, A. ; Federici, G. ; Firdaouss, M. ; Graves, J. ; Horacek, J. ; Kovari, M. ; Lanthaler, S. ; Loschiavo, V. ; Lowry, C. ; Lux, H. ; Maddaluno, G. ; Maviglia, F. ; Mitteau, R. ; Neu, R. ; Pfefferle, D. ; Schmid, K. ; Siccinio, M. ; Sieglin, B. ; Silva, C. ; Snicker, A. ; Subba, F. ; Varje, J. ; Zohm, H. / The DEMO wall load challenge. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2017 ; Vol. 57, No. 4.
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abstract = "For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m-2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m-2 for the design assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m-2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m-2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.",
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Wenninger, R, Albanese, R, Ambrosino, R, Arbeiter, F, Aubert, J, Bachmann, C, Barbato, L, Barrett, T, Beckers, M, Biel, W, Boccaccini, L, Carralero, D, Coster, D, Eich, T, Fasoli, A, Federici, G, Firdaouss, M, Graves, J, Horacek, J, Kovari, M, Lanthaler, S, Loschiavo, V, Lowry, C, Lux, H, Maddaluno, G, Maviglia, F, Mitteau, R, Neu, R, Pfefferle, D, Schmid, K, Siccinio, M, Sieglin, B, Silva, C, Snicker, A, Subba, F, Varje, J & Zohm, H 2017, 'The DEMO wall load challenge', Nuclear Fusion, vol. 57, no. 4, 046002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

The DEMO wall load challenge. / Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 57, No. 4, 046002, 09.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The DEMO wall load challenge

AU - Wenninger, R.

AU - Albanese, R.

AU - Ambrosino, R.

AU - Arbeiter, F.

AU - Aubert, J.

AU - Bachmann, C.

AU - Barbato, L.

AU - Barrett, T.

AU - Beckers, M.

AU - Biel, W.

AU - Boccaccini, L.

AU - Carralero, D.

AU - Coster, D.

AU - Eich, T.

AU - Fasoli, A.

AU - Federici, G.

AU - Firdaouss, M.

AU - Graves, J.

AU - Horacek, J.

AU - Kovari, M.

AU - Lanthaler, S.

AU - Loschiavo, V.

AU - Lowry, C.

AU - Lux, H.

AU - Maddaluno, G.

AU - Maviglia, F.

AU - Mitteau, R.

AU - Neu, R.

AU - Pfefferle, D.

AU - Schmid, K.

AU - Siccinio, M.

AU - Sieglin, B.

AU - Silva, C.

AU - Snicker, A.

AU - Subba, F.

AU - Varje, J.

AU - Zohm, H.

PY - 2017/2/9

Y1 - 2017/2/9

N2 - For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m-2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m-2 for the design assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m-2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m-2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

AB - For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m-2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m-2 for the design assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m-2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m-2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

KW - DEMO

KW - first wall

KW - power loads

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U2 - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

DO - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

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Wenninger R, Albanese R, Ambrosino R, Arbeiter F, Aubert J, Bachmann C et al. The DEMO wall load challenge. Nuclear Fusion. 2017 Feb 9;57(4). 046002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4