The effect of chemical additives on the strength, stiffness and elongation potential of paper

Anders Strand (Corresponding Author), Alexey Khakalo, Jarmo Kouko, Antti Oksanen, Annika Ketola, Kristian Salminen, Orlando Rojas, Elias Retulainen, Anna Sundberg

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    20 Citations (Scopus)


    The effects of wet-end additions of cationic starches and/or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on paper properties was determined by papermaking trials. The aim of this study was to mitigate the distinctive decrease in strength and stiffness due to unrestrained drying by addition of wet-end additives, while maintaining the extraordinarily high stretch potential of papers after unrestrained drying. Addition of the different polysaccharides increased the tensile index and density of the paper. The largest incgtreases in tensile index and stiffness were seen when combining cationic starches with CMC. With certain combinations of cationic starch and CMC, it was possible to increase the tensile index and stiffness of the paper, while maintaining the high elongation at break after unrestrained drying. To complement the results from the papermaking trials, adsorption of cationic starches and CMC onto cellulose nanofibril model surfaces was studied by QCM-D and SPR techniques. The additives adsorbed onto cellulose surfaces as soft gels, containing a large amount of coupled water. Adsorption of soft and malleable polysaccharide layers in the fiber-fiber joints enhanced the paper properties significantly on a macroscopic level. The softest and most swollen polysaccharide layers resulted in the largest increases in tensile index and stiffness of paper.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)324-335
    JournalNordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)
    • Cationic starch
    • Extendable fiber network
    • Paper shrinkage
    • Stretch
    • Tensile index
    • Tensile stiffness
    • Unrestrained drying


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