The effect of density gradients on hydrometers

Martti Heinonen (Corresponding Author), Sampo Sillanpää

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)


    Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we studied the effect of non-uniform density of liquid on a hydrometer reading. The effect induced by vertical temperature gradients was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A method for compensating for the effect mathematically was developed and tested with experimental data obtained with the MIKES hydrometer calibration system.

    In the tests, the method was found reliable. However, the reliability depends on the available information on the hydrometer dimensions and density gradients.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)625-628
    Number of pages4
    JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2003
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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