The effects of certain polymers on tensile strength and tension relaxation of wet web

K. Salminen, J. Kataja-Aho, H. Lindqvist, E. Retulainen, T. Rantanen, A. Sundberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The trend in papermaking has been towards lower basis weights, decreased amounts of softwood kraft pulp and an increased use of fillers and recycled fibers. All these changes tend to result in lower strengths of both wet and dry web. To maintain necessary strength in the papers, a greater quantity of strength additives is often required. The effect of different polymers on the dry paper strength has been widely studied and the action of mechanism of different polymers is quite well known. There is much less information of their effect on wet web properties, and especially on the tensile strength and relaxation characteristics. In this laboratory scale study, the effects of adding different polymers by spraying on wet web tensile and relaxation characteristics at high strain rate were examined. The sprayings were done on wet paper sheets before wet pressing. The results showed that spraying of polymers significantly improves wet and dry paper tensile strength without any increase in dry paper density. The effect of different polymers on wet web mechanical properties was characteristic for each polymer. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan improved wet web tensile strength at dryness levels higher than 55%, while polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) improved wet web tensile strength also at lower dryness levels. The most prominent increase in dry and wet web tensile strength was obtained by sequential application of oppositely charged polymers. However, the relative increase of tensile strength was significantly higher for the wet web (80% increase) than for the dry paper (35% increase) compared to the reference without added polymer. Also the mode of polymer addition had a significant effect on wet web tensile strength. Despite a significant increase in the wet web strength, only minor effects on the residual tension (tension after 0.475 s relaxation) was observed. Based on this result, it was concluded that spray addition of the polymers used in this study increased molecular level interactions between fibers but had no effect on the fiber network activation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPaper Conference and Trade Show 2011
Subtitle of host publicationPaperCon 2011
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventPaper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2011 - Covington, United States
Duration: 1 May 20114 May 2011


ConferencePaper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2011
Abbreviated titlePaperCon 2011
CountryUnited States


  • Polymers
  • Tensile strength and relaxation
  • Wet web

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