The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler

E. Vainio (Corresponding Author), P. Yrjas, M. Zevenhoven, A. Brink, T. Laurén, M. Hupa, Tuula Kajolinna, Hannu Vesala

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    39 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)59-68
    Number of pages10
    JournalFuel Processing Technology
    Volume105
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Chlorine
    Sulfur
    Fluidized beds
    Boilers
    Potassium
    Ashes
    Gases
    Chemical analysis
    Coal Ash
    Fluidized bed combustors
    Fractionation
    Fly ash
    Furnaces

    Keywords

    • Chlorine
    • sulfur
    • potassium
    • full-scale measurements
    • co-combustion
    • bubbling fluidized bed

    Cite this

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    title = "The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler",
    abstract = "The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.",
    keywords = "Chlorine, sulfur, potassium, full-scale measurements, co-combustion, bubbling fluidized bed",
    author = "E. Vainio and P. Yrjas and M. Zevenhoven and A. Brink and T. Laur{\'e}n and M. Hupa and Tuula Kajolinna and Hannu Vesala",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.08.021",
    language = "English",
    volume = "105",
    pages = "59--68",
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    The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler. / Vainio, E. (Corresponding Author); Yrjas, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Brink, A.; Laurén, T.; Hupa, M.; Kajolinna, Tuula; Vesala, Hannu.

    In: Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 105, 2013, p. 59-68.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler

    AU - Vainio, E.

    AU - Yrjas, P.

    AU - Zevenhoven, M.

    AU - Brink, A.

    AU - Laurén, T.

    AU - Hupa, M.

    AU - Kajolinna, Tuula

    AU - Vesala, Hannu

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.

    AB - The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.

    KW - Chlorine

    KW - sulfur

    KW - potassium

    KW - full-scale measurements

    KW - co-combustion

    KW - bubbling fluidized bed

    U2 - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.08.021

    DO - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.08.021

    M3 - Article

    VL - 105

    SP - 59

    EP - 68

    JO - Fuel Processing Technology

    JF - Fuel Processing Technology

    SN - 0378-3820

    ER -