The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler

E. Vainio (Corresponding Author), P. Yrjas, M. Zevenhoven, A. Brink, T. Laurén, M. Hupa, Tuula Kajolinna, Hannu Vesala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-68
Number of pages10
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Volume105
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Chlorine
Sulfur
Fluidized beds
Boilers
Potassium
Ashes
Gases
Chemical analysis
Coal Ash
Fluidized bed combustors
Fractionation
Fly ash
Furnaces

Keywords

  • Chlorine
  • sulfur
  • potassium
  • full-scale measurements
  • co-combustion
  • bubbling fluidized bed

Cite this

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title = "The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler",
abstract = "The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.",
keywords = "Chlorine, sulfur, potassium, full-scale measurements, co-combustion, bubbling fluidized bed",
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year = "2013",
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language = "English",
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pages = "59--68",
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The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler. / Vainio, E. (Corresponding Author); Yrjas, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Brink, A.; Laurén, T.; Hupa, M.; Kajolinna, Tuula; Vesala, Hannu.

In: Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 105, 2013, p. 59-68.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler

AU - Vainio, E.

AU - Yrjas, P.

AU - Zevenhoven, M.

AU - Brink, A.

AU - Laurén, T.

AU - Hupa, M.

AU - Kajolinna, Tuula

AU - Vesala, Hannu

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.

AB - The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous HCl in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the HCl and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.

KW - Chlorine

KW - sulfur

KW - potassium

KW - full-scale measurements

KW - co-combustion

KW - bubbling fluidized bed

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.08.021

DO - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.08.021

M3 - Article

VL - 105

SP - 59

EP - 68

JO - Fuel Processing Technology

JF - Fuel Processing Technology

SN - 0378-3820

ER -