The first reformulated gasoline in Europe

Jouni Kivi, Jussi Kokko, Päivi Aakko, Matti Kytö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a gasoline reformulation project carried out in Finland during 1993. The project focused on the impact of gasoline sulfur and benzene content on exhaust emissions. Twelve 1990 - 1993 model vehicles were tested using two fuel sulfur levels, 500 and 100 ppm, and two benzene levels, 1 wt.% and 3 wt.%. Another subject of investigation was evaporative emissins during refuelling. When the sulfur content of the fuel was reduced from 500 to 100 ppm, the regulated exhaust emissions from catalyst cars decreased at test temperatures 22°C as follows: carbon monoxide CO 14%, total hydrocarbons THC 7% and nitrogen oxides NOx 9%. At test temperatures -7°C the reduction of sulfur content gave smaller benefits expressed in percentages, but the absolute changes (g/km) were at the same level as at +22°C. When the benzene content of the gasoline was decreased from 3 wt.% to 1 wt.%, the benzene emissions of cars were reduced by 20 - 30 % both at test temperatures 22°C and at test temperatures -7°C. Total hydrocarbons and benzene evaporation was determined during refuelling. Total HC decreased in direct proportion to a 24 percent reduction in vapor pressure. Benzene evaporation decreased two thirds when low benzene fuel was used.

Original languageEnglish
Article number952501
JournalSAE Technical Paper Series
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1995
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
EventFuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition - Toronto, ON, Canada
Duration: 16 Oct 199519 Oct 1995

Fingerprint

Reformulated gasoline
Benzene
Sulfur
Gasoline
Evaporation
Railroad cars
Hydrocarbons
Temperature
Nitrogen oxides
Vapor pressure
Carbon monoxide
Catalysts

Cite this

Kivi, Jouni ; Kokko, Jussi ; Aakko, Päivi ; Kytö, Matti. / The first reformulated gasoline in Europe. In: SAE Technical Paper Series. 1995.
@article{8185f817301947659b2efa0f5f5c6813,
title = "The first reformulated gasoline in Europe",
abstract = "This paper presents the results of a gasoline reformulation project carried out in Finland during 1993. The project focused on the impact of gasoline sulfur and benzene content on exhaust emissions. Twelve 1990 - 1993 model vehicles were tested using two fuel sulfur levels, 500 and 100 ppm, and two benzene levels, 1 wt.{\%} and 3 wt.{\%}. Another subject of investigation was evaporative emissins during refuelling. When the sulfur content of the fuel was reduced from 500 to 100 ppm, the regulated exhaust emissions from catalyst cars decreased at test temperatures 22°C as follows: carbon monoxide CO 14{\%}, total hydrocarbons THC 7{\%} and nitrogen oxides NOx 9{\%}. At test temperatures -7°C the reduction of sulfur content gave smaller benefits expressed in percentages, but the absolute changes (g/km) were at the same level as at +22°C. When the benzene content of the gasoline was decreased from 3 wt.{\%} to 1 wt.{\%}, the benzene emissions of cars were reduced by 20 - 30 {\%} both at test temperatures 22°C and at test temperatures -7°C. Total hydrocarbons and benzene evaporation was determined during refuelling. Total HC decreased in direct proportion to a 24 percent reduction in vapor pressure. Benzene evaporation decreased two thirds when low benzene fuel was used.",
author = "Jouni Kivi and Jussi Kokko and P{\"a}ivi Aakko and Matti Kyt{\"o}",
year = "1995",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.4271/952501",
language = "English",
journal = "SAE Technical Paper Series",
issn = "0148-7191",
publisher = "Society of Automotive Engineers SAE",

}

The first reformulated gasoline in Europe. / Kivi, Jouni; Kokko, Jussi; Aakko, Päivi; Kytö, Matti.

In: SAE Technical Paper Series, 01.12.1995.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The first reformulated gasoline in Europe

AU - Kivi, Jouni

AU - Kokko, Jussi

AU - Aakko, Päivi

AU - Kytö, Matti

PY - 1995/12/1

Y1 - 1995/12/1

N2 - This paper presents the results of a gasoline reformulation project carried out in Finland during 1993. The project focused on the impact of gasoline sulfur and benzene content on exhaust emissions. Twelve 1990 - 1993 model vehicles were tested using two fuel sulfur levels, 500 and 100 ppm, and two benzene levels, 1 wt.% and 3 wt.%. Another subject of investigation was evaporative emissins during refuelling. When the sulfur content of the fuel was reduced from 500 to 100 ppm, the regulated exhaust emissions from catalyst cars decreased at test temperatures 22°C as follows: carbon monoxide CO 14%, total hydrocarbons THC 7% and nitrogen oxides NOx 9%. At test temperatures -7°C the reduction of sulfur content gave smaller benefits expressed in percentages, but the absolute changes (g/km) were at the same level as at +22°C. When the benzene content of the gasoline was decreased from 3 wt.% to 1 wt.%, the benzene emissions of cars were reduced by 20 - 30 % both at test temperatures 22°C and at test temperatures -7°C. Total hydrocarbons and benzene evaporation was determined during refuelling. Total HC decreased in direct proportion to a 24 percent reduction in vapor pressure. Benzene evaporation decreased two thirds when low benzene fuel was used.

AB - This paper presents the results of a gasoline reformulation project carried out in Finland during 1993. The project focused on the impact of gasoline sulfur and benzene content on exhaust emissions. Twelve 1990 - 1993 model vehicles were tested using two fuel sulfur levels, 500 and 100 ppm, and two benzene levels, 1 wt.% and 3 wt.%. Another subject of investigation was evaporative emissins during refuelling. When the sulfur content of the fuel was reduced from 500 to 100 ppm, the regulated exhaust emissions from catalyst cars decreased at test temperatures 22°C as follows: carbon monoxide CO 14%, total hydrocarbons THC 7% and nitrogen oxides NOx 9%. At test temperatures -7°C the reduction of sulfur content gave smaller benefits expressed in percentages, but the absolute changes (g/km) were at the same level as at +22°C. When the benzene content of the gasoline was decreased from 3 wt.% to 1 wt.%, the benzene emissions of cars were reduced by 20 - 30 % both at test temperatures 22°C and at test temperatures -7°C. Total hydrocarbons and benzene evaporation was determined during refuelling. Total HC decreased in direct proportion to a 24 percent reduction in vapor pressure. Benzene evaporation decreased two thirds when low benzene fuel was used.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877360471&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4271/952501

DO - 10.4271/952501

M3 - Article

JO - SAE Technical Paper Series

JF - SAE Technical Paper Series

SN - 0148-7191

M1 - 952501

ER -