Wind and solar generation may consequently be difficult to predict over some time scales. Large penetrations of variable generation (VG) lead to increases in the variability and uncertainty in the system's generation output, driving a need for greater flexibility. This flexibility will need to come either from flexible generation technologies or from alternative sources of flexibility such as flexible demand and storage. This article will discuss the additional flexibility needs introduced by variable generation from wind and solar power and will describe general approaches to analyzing the need for and provision of additional flexibility in the power system in both the operational and planning time frames.
Holttinen, H., Tuohy, A., Milligan, M., Lannoye, E., Silva, V., Müller, S., & Söder, L. (2013). The flexibility workout: Managing variable resources and assessing the need for power system modification. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 11(6), 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2013.2278000