The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine

Jenni Alanen (Corresponding Author), Erkka Saukko, Kati Lehtoranta, Timo Murtonen, Hilkka Timonen, Risto Hillamo, Panu Karjalainen, Heino Kuuluvainen, Juha Harra, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Natural gas engine particle emissions were studied using an old gasoline engine modified to run with natural gas. The tests were steady-state tests performed on two different low loads in an engine dynamometer. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, volatility and electric charge were measured. Exhaust particles were observed to have peak diameters below 10 nm. To get the full picture of particle emissions from natural gas engines, size range 1-5 nm is relevant and important to take into consideration. A particle size magnifier (PSM) was used in this engine application for measuring particles smaller than 3 nm and it proved to be a useful instrument when measuring natural gas engine exhaust particles. It is concluded that the detected particles probably originated from the engine cylinders or their vicinity and grew to detectable sizes in the sampling process because a small fraction of the particles were observed to carry electric charge and the particles did not evaporate totally at 265°C.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-161
JournalFuel
Volume162
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Gas engines
Natural gas
Physical properties
Electric charge
Engines
Vehicle Emissions
Exhaust systems (engine)
Dynamometers
Engine cylinders
Gasoline
Particle size
Sampling

Keywords

  • fine particle emission
  • internal combustion engine
  • natural gas
  • particle formation

Cite this

Alanen, Jenni ; Saukko, Erkka ; Lehtoranta, Kati ; Murtonen, Timo ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Hillamo, Risto ; Karjalainen, Panu ; Kuuluvainen, Heino ; Harra, Juha ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Rönkkö, Topi. / The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine. In: Fuel. 2015 ; Vol. 162. pp. 155-161.
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title = "The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine",
abstract = "Natural gas engine particle emissions were studied using an old gasoline engine modified to run with natural gas. The tests were steady-state tests performed on two different low loads in an engine dynamometer. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, volatility and electric charge were measured. Exhaust particles were observed to have peak diameters below 10 nm. To get the full picture of particle emissions from natural gas engines, size range 1-5 nm is relevant and important to take into consideration. A particle size magnifier (PSM) was used in this engine application for measuring particles smaller than 3 nm and it proved to be a useful instrument when measuring natural gas engine exhaust particles. It is concluded that the detected particles probably originated from the engine cylinders or their vicinity and grew to detectable sizes in the sampling process because a small fraction of the particles were observed to carry electric charge and the particles did not evaporate totally at 265°C.",
keywords = "fine particle emission, internal combustion engine, natural gas, particle formation",
author = "Jenni Alanen and Erkka Saukko and Kati Lehtoranta and Timo Murtonen and Hilkka Timonen and Risto Hillamo and Panu Karjalainen and Heino Kuuluvainen and Juha Harra and Jorma Keskinen and Topi R{\"o}nkk{\"o}",
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Alanen, J, Saukko, E, Lehtoranta, K, Murtonen, T, Timonen, H, Hillamo, R, Karjalainen, P, Kuuluvainen, H, Harra, J, Keskinen, J & Rönkkö, T 2015, 'The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine', Fuel, vol. 162, pp. 155-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.09.003

The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine. / Alanen, Jenni (Corresponding Author); Saukko, Erkka; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Timonen, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Karjalainen, Panu; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Harra, Juha; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi.

In: Fuel, Vol. 162, 2015, p. 155-161.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine

AU - Alanen, Jenni

AU - Saukko, Erkka

AU - Lehtoranta, Kati

AU - Murtonen, Timo

AU - Timonen, Hilkka

AU - Hillamo, Risto

AU - Karjalainen, Panu

AU - Kuuluvainen, Heino

AU - Harra, Juha

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

AU - Rönkkö, Topi

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Natural gas engine particle emissions were studied using an old gasoline engine modified to run with natural gas. The tests were steady-state tests performed on two different low loads in an engine dynamometer. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, volatility and electric charge were measured. Exhaust particles were observed to have peak diameters below 10 nm. To get the full picture of particle emissions from natural gas engines, size range 1-5 nm is relevant and important to take into consideration. A particle size magnifier (PSM) was used in this engine application for measuring particles smaller than 3 nm and it proved to be a useful instrument when measuring natural gas engine exhaust particles. It is concluded that the detected particles probably originated from the engine cylinders or their vicinity and grew to detectable sizes in the sampling process because a small fraction of the particles were observed to carry electric charge and the particles did not evaporate totally at 265°C.

AB - Natural gas engine particle emissions were studied using an old gasoline engine modified to run with natural gas. The tests were steady-state tests performed on two different low loads in an engine dynamometer. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, volatility and electric charge were measured. Exhaust particles were observed to have peak diameters below 10 nm. To get the full picture of particle emissions from natural gas engines, size range 1-5 nm is relevant and important to take into consideration. A particle size magnifier (PSM) was used in this engine application for measuring particles smaller than 3 nm and it proved to be a useful instrument when measuring natural gas engine exhaust particles. It is concluded that the detected particles probably originated from the engine cylinders or their vicinity and grew to detectable sizes in the sampling process because a small fraction of the particles were observed to carry electric charge and the particles did not evaporate totally at 265°C.

KW - fine particle emission

KW - internal combustion engine

KW - natural gas

KW - particle formation

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