The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system: Dissertation

Hannele Holttinen

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

    Abstract

    This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 % of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 % of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 % of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 % of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 % penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 % penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 % penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 % of gross demand).
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor Degree
    Awarding Institution
    • Aalto University
    Supervisors/Advisors
    • Lund, Peter D., Supervisor, External person
    Award date17 Apr 2004
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    Publisher
    Print ISBNs951-38-6426-X
    Electronic ISBNs951-38-6427-8
    Publication statusPublished - 2004
    MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

    Fingerprint

    Wind power
    Electricity
    Costs
    Large scale systems
    Coal

    Keywords

    • wind power
    • power systems
    • power system impacts
    • wind power variations
    • power generation
    • renewable energy sources
    • fluctuating production
    • predictability of wind power
    • electricity markets
    • emission reductions
    • CO2 abatement
    • Nordic countries
    • simulation

    Cite this

    Holttinen, H. (2004). The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Holttinen, Hannele. / The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system : Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 200 p.
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    abstract = "This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 {\%} of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 {\%} of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 {\%} of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 {\%} of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 {\%} penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 {\%} penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 {\%} penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 {\%} of gross demand).",
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    author = "Hannele Holttinen",
    year = "2004",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "951-38-6426-X",
    series = "VTT Publications",
    publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
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    The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system : Dissertation. / Holttinen, Hannele.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 200 p.

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

    TY - THES

    T1 - The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system

    T2 - Dissertation

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    PY - 2004

    Y1 - 2004

    N2 - This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 % of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 % of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 % of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 % of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 % penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 % penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 % penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 % of gross demand).

    AB - This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 % of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 % of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 % of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 % of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 % penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 % penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 % penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 % of gross demand).

    KW - wind power

    KW - power systems

    KW - power system impacts

    KW - wind power variations

    KW - power generation

    KW - renewable energy sources

    KW - fluctuating production

    KW - predictability of wind power

    KW - electricity markets

    KW - emission reductions

    KW - CO2 abatement

    KW - Nordic countries

    KW - simulation

    M3 - Dissertation

    SN - 951-38-6426-X

    T3 - VTT Publications

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

    CY - Espoo

    ER -

    Holttinen H. The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 200 p.