The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system: Dissertation

Hannele Holttinen

Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

Abstract

This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 % of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 % of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 % of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 % of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 % penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 % penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 % penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 % of gross demand).
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Lund, Peter D., Supervisor, External person
Award date17 Apr 2004
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publisher
Print ISBNs951-38-6426-X
Electronic ISBNs951-38-6427-8
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

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Wind power
Electricity
Costs
Large scale systems
Coal

Keywords

  • wind power
  • power systems
  • power system impacts
  • wind power variations
  • power generation
  • renewable energy sources
  • fluctuating production
  • predictability of wind power
  • electricity markets
  • emission reductions
  • CO2 abatement
  • Nordic countries
  • simulation

Cite this

Holttinen, H. (2004). The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Holttinen, Hannele. / The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system : Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 200 p.
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abstract = "This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 {\%} of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 {\%} of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 {\%} of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 {\%} of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 {\%} penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 {\%} penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 {\%} penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 {\%} of gross demand).",
keywords = "wind power, power systems, power system impacts, wind power variations, power generation, renewable energy sources, fluctuating production, predictability of wind power, electricity markets, emission reductions, CO2 abatement, Nordic countries, simulation",
author = "Hannele Holttinen",
year = "2004",
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The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system : Dissertation. / Holttinen, Hannele.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 200 p.

Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

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N2 - This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 % of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 % of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 % of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 % of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 % penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 % penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 % penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 % of gross demand).

AB - This thesis studies the impact of large amounts of wind power on the Nordic electricity system. The impact on both the technical operation of the power system and the electricity market are investigated. The variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected system with geographically dispersed wind power production. In the Nordic countries, the aggregated wind power production will stay between 1-90 % of the installed capacity and the hourly step changes will be within ±5 % of the installed capacity for most of the time. The reserve requirement for the system, due to wind power, is determined by combining the variations with varying electricity consumption. The increase in reserve requirement is mostly seen on the 15 minutes to 1 hour time scale. The operating reserves in the Nordic countries should be increased by an amount corresponding to about 2 % of wind power capacity when wind power produces 10 % of yearly gross demand. The increased cost of regulation is of the order of 1 e/MWh at 10 % penetration and 2 e/MWh at 20 % penetration. This cost is halved if the investment costs for new reserve capacity are omitted and only the increased use of reserves is taken into account. In addition, prediction errors in wind power day ahead will appear in the regulating power market to an extent which depends on how much they affect the system net balance and how much the balance responsible players will correct the deviations before the actual operating hour. Simulations of increasing wind power in the Nordic electricity system show that wind power would mainly replace coal fired production and increase transmission between the areas within the Nordic countries and from Nordic countries to Central Europe. The CO2 emissions decrease from an initial 700 gCO2/kWh to 620 gCO2/kWh at 12 % penetration. High penetrations of wind power will lower the Nordpool spot market prices by about 2 e/MWh per 10 TWh/a added wind production (10 TWh/a is 3 % of gross demand).

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KW - power systems

KW - power system impacts

KW - wind power variations

KW - power generation

KW - renewable energy sources

KW - fluctuating production

KW - predictability of wind power

KW - electricity markets

KW - emission reductions

KW - CO2 abatement

KW - Nordic countries

KW - simulation

M3 - Dissertation

SN - 951-38-6426-X

T3 - VTT Publications

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Holttinen H. The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 200 p.