The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Process Design and Economics

Petteri Kangas, Max Nyström, Inka Orko, Pertti Koukkari, Pekka Saikkonen, Jussi Rastas

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

The Jarogain process provides a unique hydrometallurgical approach for treating zinc-containing side-streams and residues, in particular jarosite, gothite and electric arc furnace dust. The process is based on a sequence of steps, in which the feedstock is first leached in a reducing environment, and its metal contents are subsequently separated as hydroxide and sulfide precipitates. Finally, the remaining iron is crystallised from the solution. Key products of the Jarogain process are: i) lead concentrate, also containing silver and gold, ii) mixed indium, gallium and germanium concentrate, iii) zinc concentrate, iv) iron concentrate, and v) sulfuric acid. Gypsum silicate and a separate arsenic precipitate remain as solid residues. A purified aqueous effluent is purged from the process. A plant processing 400 000 t of jarosite and 50 000 t of EAF-dust annually would require an investment of 390 million. The battery limit cost of the actual Jarogain process is 200 million. Almost 50 % of the overall costs are generated by the auxiliary units such as the sulfuric acid plant and power boiler required for the operation. The economic feasibility of the Jarogain process was assessed on the basis of the discounted cash flow analysis. The levelized cost of production for the metal concentrates was estimated to be 80% of the pure metal prices. The greatest uncertainties with regard to the economic feasibility relate to the investment costs and the values of lead and zinc concentrates. According to the laboratory scale proof-of-concept results obtained, the Jarogain process remains an interesting alternative for processing residues and side-streams containing zinc. Further studies should focus on continuous piloting of the proposed concept in order to support a more rigorous feasibility study in terms of process economy.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages96
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8596-0
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8597-7
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology
Number317
ISSN2242-1211

Fingerprint

Metal recovery
Electric arcs
Dust
Process design
Furnaces
Zinc
Economics
Sulfuric acid
Costs
Precipitates
Metals
Iron
Gypsum
Gallium
Processing
Arsenic
Germanium
Indium
Feedstocks
Silicates

Keywords

  • jarosite
  • EAF-dust
  • RLE
  • zinc
  • lead
  • silver
  • gold
  • indium
  • gallium
  • germanium
  • hydrometallurgy
  • leaching

Cite this

Kangas, P., Nyström, M., Orko, I., Koukkari, P., Saikkonen, P., & Rastas, J. (2017). The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Process Design and Economics. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 317
Kangas, Petteri ; Nyström, Max ; Orko, Inka ; Koukkari, Pertti ; Saikkonen, Pekka ; Rastas, Jussi. / The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust : Process Design and Economics. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2017. 96 p. (VTT Technology; No. 317).
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abstract = "The Jarogain process provides a unique hydrometallurgical approach for treating zinc-containing side-streams and residues, in particular jarosite, gothite and electric arc furnace dust. The process is based on a sequence of steps, in which the feedstock is first leached in a reducing environment, and its metal contents are subsequently separated as hydroxide and sulfide precipitates. Finally, the remaining iron is crystallised from the solution. Key products of the Jarogain process are: i) lead concentrate, also containing silver and gold, ii) mixed indium, gallium and germanium concentrate, iii) zinc concentrate, iv) iron concentrate, and v) sulfuric acid. Gypsum silicate and a separate arsenic precipitate remain as solid residues. A purified aqueous effluent is purged from the process. A plant processing 400 000 t of jarosite and 50 000 t of EAF-dust annually would require an investment of 390 million. The battery limit cost of the actual Jarogain process is 200 million. Almost 50 {\%} of the overall costs are generated by the auxiliary units such as the sulfuric acid plant and power boiler required for the operation. The economic feasibility of the Jarogain process was assessed on the basis of the discounted cash flow analysis. The levelized cost of production for the metal concentrates was estimated to be 80{\%} of the pure metal prices. The greatest uncertainties with regard to the economic feasibility relate to the investment costs and the values of lead and zinc concentrates. According to the laboratory scale proof-of-concept results obtained, the Jarogain process remains an interesting alternative for processing residues and side-streams containing zinc. Further studies should focus on continuous piloting of the proposed concept in order to support a more rigorous feasibility study in terms of process economy.",
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Kangas, P, Nyström, M, Orko, I, Koukkari, P, Saikkonen, P & Rastas, J 2017, The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Process Design and Economics. VTT Technology, no. 317, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust : Process Design and Economics. / Kangas, Petteri; Nyström, Max; Orko, Inka; Koukkari, Pertti; Saikkonen, Pekka; Rastas, Jussi.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2017. 96 p. (VTT Technology; No. 317).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust

T2 - Process Design and Economics

AU - Kangas, Petteri

AU - Nyström, Max

AU - Orko, Inka

AU - Koukkari, Pertti

AU - Saikkonen, Pekka

AU - Rastas, Jussi

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The Jarogain process provides a unique hydrometallurgical approach for treating zinc-containing side-streams and residues, in particular jarosite, gothite and electric arc furnace dust. The process is based on a sequence of steps, in which the feedstock is first leached in a reducing environment, and its metal contents are subsequently separated as hydroxide and sulfide precipitates. Finally, the remaining iron is crystallised from the solution. Key products of the Jarogain process are: i) lead concentrate, also containing silver and gold, ii) mixed indium, gallium and germanium concentrate, iii) zinc concentrate, iv) iron concentrate, and v) sulfuric acid. Gypsum silicate and a separate arsenic precipitate remain as solid residues. A purified aqueous effluent is purged from the process. A plant processing 400 000 t of jarosite and 50 000 t of EAF-dust annually would require an investment of 390 million. The battery limit cost of the actual Jarogain process is 200 million. Almost 50 % of the overall costs are generated by the auxiliary units such as the sulfuric acid plant and power boiler required for the operation. The economic feasibility of the Jarogain process was assessed on the basis of the discounted cash flow analysis. The levelized cost of production for the metal concentrates was estimated to be 80% of the pure metal prices. The greatest uncertainties with regard to the economic feasibility relate to the investment costs and the values of lead and zinc concentrates. According to the laboratory scale proof-of-concept results obtained, the Jarogain process remains an interesting alternative for processing residues and side-streams containing zinc. Further studies should focus on continuous piloting of the proposed concept in order to support a more rigorous feasibility study in terms of process economy.

AB - The Jarogain process provides a unique hydrometallurgical approach for treating zinc-containing side-streams and residues, in particular jarosite, gothite and electric arc furnace dust. The process is based on a sequence of steps, in which the feedstock is first leached in a reducing environment, and its metal contents are subsequently separated as hydroxide and sulfide precipitates. Finally, the remaining iron is crystallised from the solution. Key products of the Jarogain process are: i) lead concentrate, also containing silver and gold, ii) mixed indium, gallium and germanium concentrate, iii) zinc concentrate, iv) iron concentrate, and v) sulfuric acid. Gypsum silicate and a separate arsenic precipitate remain as solid residues. A purified aqueous effluent is purged from the process. A plant processing 400 000 t of jarosite and 50 000 t of EAF-dust annually would require an investment of 390 million. The battery limit cost of the actual Jarogain process is 200 million. Almost 50 % of the overall costs are generated by the auxiliary units such as the sulfuric acid plant and power boiler required for the operation. The economic feasibility of the Jarogain process was assessed on the basis of the discounted cash flow analysis. The levelized cost of production for the metal concentrates was estimated to be 80% of the pure metal prices. The greatest uncertainties with regard to the economic feasibility relate to the investment costs and the values of lead and zinc concentrates. According to the laboratory scale proof-of-concept results obtained, the Jarogain process remains an interesting alternative for processing residues and side-streams containing zinc. Further studies should focus on continuous piloting of the proposed concept in order to support a more rigorous feasibility study in terms of process economy.

KW - jarosite

KW - EAF-dust

KW - RLE

KW - zinc

KW - lead

KW - silver

KW - gold

KW - indium

KW - gallium

KW - germanium

KW - hydrometallurgy

KW - leaching

M3 - Report

SN - 978-951-38-8597-7

T3 - VTT Technology

BT - The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Kangas P, Nyström M, Orko I, Koukkari P, Saikkonen P, Rastas J. The Jarogain Process for Metals Recovery from Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Process Design and Economics. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2017. 96 p. (VTT Technology; No. 317).