The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards: Dissertation

Rhea Kakko

Research output: ThesisDissertation

Abstract

During the last 20 years there has been a considerable increase in the use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). QRA identifies those areas where operations, engineering, or management systems may be modified to reduce risk, and may identify the most economical way to do it. It can be applied to the investigation of the siting and design options before deciding of the further management actions. In QRA, a variety of predictive models is employed. The results can contain uncertainties which arise from the approximations inherent in the model or the assumptions and judgments that are necessary to perform risk analysis. This work presents the estimation of source term, dispersion, consequences and individual risks arising from toxic hazards (development of RISKIT program) and some special areas in QRA considers such as: - effect of relative humidity - effect of ventilation and chemical reactions - application of fuzzy method to the selection of appropriate computer model - experiences of consequence and risk assessment in process design. The results of this work show that the deviation of the results due to using different models for specific situations in QRA cam be large; therefore, more experimental work is required in order to better validate the models. The experimental work of dispersion in certain areas, such as the effect of relative humidity, and the effect of ventilation and chemical reactions, has been very sparse. Proposals for improving the reliability of the models in QRA on the basis of the results of this work are presented. These concern, for example, the development of models and expert systems, and the use of QRA and its results. Because of the wide scope of this held and the scarcity of experimental data, the results of this work and the proposals presented should be considered only as a basis for further research and development.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Tampere University of Technology (TUT)
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Suokas, Jouko, Supervisor, External person
  • Graeffe, Gunnar, Supervisor, External person
Award date14 Dec 1991
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publisher
Print ISBNs951-38-4062-X
Publication statusPublished - 1991
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Fingerprint

Risk assessment
Hazards
Ventilation
Chemical reactions
Atmospheric humidity
Cams
Risk analysis
Expert systems
Process design

Keywords

  • risk analysis
  • assessments
  • hazards
  • risk
  • accident prevention
  • hazardours materials
  • chemicals
  • poisons
  • gases
  • vapors
  • dispersing
  • humidity
  • ventilation
  • chemical reactions
  • computer programs
  • calculations
  • mathematical models

Cite this

Kakko, R. (1991). The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Kakko, Rhea. / The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards : Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1991. 197 p.
@phdthesis{d9e3b72261dc48a093f0653929cf1aba,
title = "The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards: Dissertation",
abstract = "During the last 20 years there has been a considerable increase in the use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). QRA identifies those areas where operations, engineering, or management systems may be modified to reduce risk, and may identify the most economical way to do it. It can be applied to the investigation of the siting and design options before deciding of the further management actions. In QRA, a variety of predictive models is employed. The results can contain uncertainties which arise from the approximations inherent in the model or the assumptions and judgments that are necessary to perform risk analysis. This work presents the estimation of source term, dispersion, consequences and individual risks arising from toxic hazards (development of RISKIT program) and some special areas in QRA considers such as: - effect of relative humidity - effect of ventilation and chemical reactions - application of fuzzy method to the selection of appropriate computer model - experiences of consequence and risk assessment in process design. The results of this work show that the deviation of the results due to using different models for specific situations in QRA cam be large; therefore, more experimental work is required in order to better validate the models. The experimental work of dispersion in certain areas, such as the effect of relative humidity, and the effect of ventilation and chemical reactions, has been very sparse. Proposals for improving the reliability of the models in QRA on the basis of the results of this work are presented. These concern, for example, the development of models and expert systems, and the use of QRA and its results. Because of the wide scope of this held and the scarcity of experimental data, the results of this work and the proposals presented should be considered only as a basis for further research and development.",
keywords = "risk analysis, assessments, hazards, risk, accident prevention, hazardours materials, chemicals, poisons, gases, vapors, dispersing, humidity, ventilation, chemical reactions, computer programs, calculations, mathematical models",
author = "Rhea Kakko",
note = "Project code: TUR10212",
year = "1991",
language = "English",
isbn = "951-38-4062-X",
series = "Technical Research Centre of Finland. Publications",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
number = "84",
address = "Finland",
school = "Tampere University of Technology (TUT)",

}

Kakko, R 1991, 'The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards: Dissertation', Doctor Degree, Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Espoo.

The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards : Dissertation. / Kakko, Rhea.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1991. 197 p.

Research output: ThesisDissertation

TY - THES

T1 - The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards

T2 - Dissertation

AU - Kakko, Rhea

N1 - Project code: TUR10212

PY - 1991

Y1 - 1991

N2 - During the last 20 years there has been a considerable increase in the use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). QRA identifies those areas where operations, engineering, or management systems may be modified to reduce risk, and may identify the most economical way to do it. It can be applied to the investigation of the siting and design options before deciding of the further management actions. In QRA, a variety of predictive models is employed. The results can contain uncertainties which arise from the approximations inherent in the model or the assumptions and judgments that are necessary to perform risk analysis. This work presents the estimation of source term, dispersion, consequences and individual risks arising from toxic hazards (development of RISKIT program) and some special areas in QRA considers such as: - effect of relative humidity - effect of ventilation and chemical reactions - application of fuzzy method to the selection of appropriate computer model - experiences of consequence and risk assessment in process design. The results of this work show that the deviation of the results due to using different models for specific situations in QRA cam be large; therefore, more experimental work is required in order to better validate the models. The experimental work of dispersion in certain areas, such as the effect of relative humidity, and the effect of ventilation and chemical reactions, has been very sparse. Proposals for improving the reliability of the models in QRA on the basis of the results of this work are presented. These concern, for example, the development of models and expert systems, and the use of QRA and its results. Because of the wide scope of this held and the scarcity of experimental data, the results of this work and the proposals presented should be considered only as a basis for further research and development.

AB - During the last 20 years there has been a considerable increase in the use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). QRA identifies those areas where operations, engineering, or management systems may be modified to reduce risk, and may identify the most economical way to do it. It can be applied to the investigation of the siting and design options before deciding of the further management actions. In QRA, a variety of predictive models is employed. The results can contain uncertainties which arise from the approximations inherent in the model or the assumptions and judgments that are necessary to perform risk analysis. This work presents the estimation of source term, dispersion, consequences and individual risks arising from toxic hazards (development of RISKIT program) and some special areas in QRA considers such as: - effect of relative humidity - effect of ventilation and chemical reactions - application of fuzzy method to the selection of appropriate computer model - experiences of consequence and risk assessment in process design. The results of this work show that the deviation of the results due to using different models for specific situations in QRA cam be large; therefore, more experimental work is required in order to better validate the models. The experimental work of dispersion in certain areas, such as the effect of relative humidity, and the effect of ventilation and chemical reactions, has been very sparse. Proposals for improving the reliability of the models in QRA on the basis of the results of this work are presented. These concern, for example, the development of models and expert systems, and the use of QRA and its results. Because of the wide scope of this held and the scarcity of experimental data, the results of this work and the proposals presented should be considered only as a basis for further research and development.

KW - risk analysis

KW - assessments

KW - hazards

KW - risk

KW - accident prevention

KW - hazardours materials

KW - chemicals

KW - poisons

KW - gases

KW - vapors

KW - dispersing

KW - humidity

KW - ventilation

KW - chemical reactions

KW - computer programs

KW - calculations

KW - mathematical models

M3 - Dissertation

SN - 951-38-4062-X

T3 - Technical Research Centre of Finland. Publications

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Kakko R. The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of major toxic hazards: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1991. 197 p.