The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

Solar energy provides multiple opportunities for renewable energy production. Technical potential to utilise solar energy in Europe and even in Finland is several times more than energy consumption in these regions. Economic potential is significantly smaller. However, the cost of solar energy is decreasing rapidly. In addition, when considering national economy or balance of trade, potential often increases in comparison to market potential without subsidies. In addition, people's willingness for self-sufficiency, new regulation regarding energy consumption of buildings and different dimensions of sustainability are important drivers for solar energy. In Europe, various subsidies for solar energy exist. Consequently, the amount of solar heating and photovoltaic electricity generation has increased. In the Nordic region, solar heating is often more economical than PV but the potential is limited by heat or hot water consumption, which is very case specific. If connection to district heating exists, potential is increased. On the other hand, Finnish CHP system is efficient and variable cost of district heat is therefore low in most regions. Demand for electricity is less regionally limited. In this report, PV and heat collector markets and scenarios are presented. In addition, different solar heating systems and applications are described, including costs of example systems with sensitivity analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages93
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8236-5
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8235-8
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology
Number217
ISSN2242-1211

Fingerprint

Solar energy
Solar heating
Energy utilization
Electricity
Costs
District heating
Sensitivity analysis
Sustainable development
Economics
Hot Temperature
Water

Keywords

  • solar energy
  • solar collector
  • photovoltaic
  • PV
  • flat plate
  • evacuated tube
  • water heating
  • solar district heating

Cite this

Hakkarainen, T., Tsupari, E., Hakkarainen, E., & Ikäheimo, J. (2015). The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 217
Hakkarainen, Timo ; Tsupari, Eemeli ; Hakkarainen, Elina ; Ikäheimo, Jussi. / The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 93 p. (VTT Technology; No. 217).
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Hakkarainen, T, Tsupari, E, Hakkarainen, E & Ikäheimo, J 2015, The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe. VTT Technology, no. 217, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe. / Hakkarainen, Timo; Tsupari, Eemeli; Hakkarainen, Elina; Ikäheimo, Jussi.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 93 p. (VTT Technology; No. 217).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe

AU - Hakkarainen, Timo

AU - Tsupari, Eemeli

AU - Hakkarainen, Elina

AU - Ikäheimo, Jussi

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Solar energy provides multiple opportunities for renewable energy production. Technical potential to utilise solar energy in Europe and even in Finland is several times more than energy consumption in these regions. Economic potential is significantly smaller. However, the cost of solar energy is decreasing rapidly. In addition, when considering national economy or balance of trade, potential often increases in comparison to market potential without subsidies. In addition, people's willingness for self-sufficiency, new regulation regarding energy consumption of buildings and different dimensions of sustainability are important drivers for solar energy. In Europe, various subsidies for solar energy exist. Consequently, the amount of solar heating and photovoltaic electricity generation has increased. In the Nordic region, solar heating is often more economical than PV but the potential is limited by heat or hot water consumption, which is very case specific. If connection to district heating exists, potential is increased. On the other hand, Finnish CHP system is efficient and variable cost of district heat is therefore low in most regions. Demand for electricity is less regionally limited. In this report, PV and heat collector markets and scenarios are presented. In addition, different solar heating systems and applications are described, including costs of example systems with sensitivity analysis.

AB - Solar energy provides multiple opportunities for renewable energy production. Technical potential to utilise solar energy in Europe and even in Finland is several times more than energy consumption in these regions. Economic potential is significantly smaller. However, the cost of solar energy is decreasing rapidly. In addition, when considering national economy or balance of trade, potential often increases in comparison to market potential without subsidies. In addition, people's willingness for self-sufficiency, new regulation regarding energy consumption of buildings and different dimensions of sustainability are important drivers for solar energy. In Europe, various subsidies for solar energy exist. Consequently, the amount of solar heating and photovoltaic electricity generation has increased. In the Nordic region, solar heating is often more economical than PV but the potential is limited by heat or hot water consumption, which is very case specific. If connection to district heating exists, potential is increased. On the other hand, Finnish CHP system is efficient and variable cost of district heat is therefore low in most regions. Demand for electricity is less regionally limited. In this report, PV and heat collector markets and scenarios are presented. In addition, different solar heating systems and applications are described, including costs of example systems with sensitivity analysis.

KW - solar energy

KW - solar collector

KW - photovoltaic

KW - PV

KW - flat plate

KW - evacuated tube

KW - water heating

KW - solar district heating

M3 - Report

SN - 978-951-38-8235-8

T3 - VTT Technology

BT - The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Hakkarainen T, Tsupari E, Hakkarainen E, Ikäheimo J. The role and opportunities for solar energy in Finland and Europe. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 93 p. (VTT Technology; No. 217).