The sensory profiles of flatbreads made from sorghum, cassava, and cowpea flour used as wheat flour alternatives

Rita Dankwa (Corresponding Author), Heikki Aisala, Eugenie Kayitesi, Henriette L. de Kock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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Sorghum, cowpea, and cassava are underutilised gluten-free sources of flour that have the potential to be used in bread products in sub-Saharan Africa. Excessive wheat imports affect the economies of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, driving the search for wheat flour alternatives. To extend the use of sorghum, cowpea, and cassava flours toward bread production, it is vital that the sensory properties of these flours are better understood. A trained sensory panel evaluated and described the sensory properties of flatbread models prepared from red non-tannin sorghum, fractions (whole and dehulled) of two cowpea varieties, cassava starch, and designated flour composites. The composites were prepared using cassava starch and sorghum flour at 0%, 35%, and 70%, respectively, with 30% cowpea flour. The addition of sorghum intensified sorghum aroma in flatbread, while cowpea flours contributed a beany flavour. Flatbreads from cassava-cowpea composites had a chewier and rubberier mouthfeel, an intense fermented aroma and flavour, and a sour aftertaste compared to single flours, but were most similar to the wheat flatbread, with a residual beany flavour. Information from this study can guide food product developers toward developing new bread products from sorghum, cassava, and cowpea composite flours, thereby moving Africa towards a more sustainable food system. Further research on the effects of the sensory characteristics on consumer liking of the flatbreads is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3095
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The financial assistance of the National Research Foundation (NRF) under the LEAP-Agri Research Cooperation Programme (grant number, Leap Agric 400) and European Union (grant number, 727715) towards this research is hereby acknowledged.


  • Cassava
  • Composites
  • Cowpea
  • Flatbread
  • Sensory
  • Sorghum


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