The spatial presence experience scale (SPES): A short self-report measure for diverse media settings

Tilo Hartmann (Corresponding Author), Werner Wirth, Holger Schramm, Christoph Klimmt, Peter Vorderer, André Gysbers, Saskia Böcking, Niklas Ravaja, Jari Laarni, Timo A. Saari, Feliz Ribeiro Gouveia, Ana Maria Sacau

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    Abstract

    The study of spatial presence is currently receiving increased attention in both media psychology and communication research. The present paper introduces the Spatial Presence Experience Scale (SPES), a short eight-item self-report measure. The SPES is derived from a process model of spatial presence (Wirth et al., 2007, Media Psychology, 9, 493-525), and assesses spatial presence as a two-dimensional construct that comprises a user's self-location and perceived possible actions in a media environment. The SPES is shorter than many other available spatial presence scales, and can be conveniently applied to diverse media settings. Two studies are reported (N1 = 290, N2 = 395) that confirm sound psychometric qualities for the SPES.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1 - 15
    JournalJournal of Media Psychology
    Volume28
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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    Keywords

    • immersion
    • measurement
    • self-report
    • spatial presence

    Cite this

    Hartmann, T., Wirth, W., Schramm, H., Klimmt, C., Vorderer, P., Gysbers, A., Böcking, S., Ravaja, N., Laarni, J., Saari, T. A., Gouveia, F. R., & Sacau, A. M. (2016). The spatial presence experience scale (SPES): A short self-report measure for diverse media settings. Journal of Media Psychology, 28(1), 1 - 15. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1105/a000137