The specificities and practical applications of Chinese eco-cities

Sen Bao (Corresponding Author), Marja Toivonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper aims to analyze conceptual specificities and practical applications of the Chinese eco-cities. The eco-cities, promoted by the government, reflect the combined pressure of urbanization and environmental protection in China. In addition to literature and documentary material, the study is based on the experience of a Western architectural company which has participated in eco-city projects in China. This experience has been mapped via interviews in the company and among its partners and governmental stakeholders. Our study examines in detail the contents and practical applications of the Chinese eco-city concept. It illustrates and categorizes eco-city projects and analyzes the specificities of the urbanization in China as a driver for the development of eco-cities. Similarities and differences with the corresponding concepts, like smart cities, are discussed. The eco-city concept is an important expression of sustainability concerns in China. New insights about its practical applications help to understand the specificities of environmental issues in developing economies, and comparison with the corresponding Western discussions helps to foster international collaboration in the sustainability context.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-176
JournalJournal of Science and Technology Policy Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • sustainability
  • smart cities
  • eco-cities
  • urbanization
  • China


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