The Bloch oscillating transistor (BOT) is a device in which single electron current through a normal tunnel junction enhances Cooper pair current in a mesoscopic Josephson junction, leading to signal amplification. In this article we develop a theory in which the BOT dynamics is described as a two-level system. The theory is used to predict current–voltage characteristics and small-signal response. The transition from stable operation into the hysteretic regime is studied. By identifying the two-level switching noise as the main source of fluctuations, the expressions for equivalent noise sources and the noise temperature are derived. The validity of the model is tested by comparing the results with simulations and experiments.
- superconducting transistors
- superconducting device noise
- Josephson effect
- Josephson junction
- Cooper pairs
- fluctuations in superconductors
- electrical conductivity transitions