Time-gated Raman spectroscopy – a review

Martin Koegler (Corresponding Author), Bryan Heilala

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)
330 Downloads (Pure)


Time-gated (TG) Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been shown to be an effective technical solution for the major problem whereby sample-induced fluorescence masks the Raman signal during spectral detection. Technical methods of fluorescence rejection have come a long way since the early implementations of large and expensive laboratory equipment, such as the optical Kerr gate. Today, more affordable small sized options are available. These improvements are largely due to advances in the production of spectroscopic and electronic components, leading to the reduction of device complexity and costs. An integral part of TG Raman spectroscopy is the temporally precise synchronization (picosecond range) between the pulsed laser excitation source and the sensitive and fast detector. The detector is able to collect the Raman signal during the short laser pulses, while fluorescence emission, which has a longer delay, is rejected during the detector dead-time. TG Raman is also resistant against ambient light as well as thermal emissions, due to its short measurement duty cycle. In recent years, the focus in the study of ultra-sensitive and fast detectors has been on gated and intensified charge coupled devices (ICCDs), or on CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays, which are also suitable for performing TG RS. SPAD arrays have the advantage of being even more sensitive, with better temporal resolution compared to gated CCDs, and without the requirement for excessive detector cooling. This review aims to provide an overview of TG Raman from early to recent developments, its applications and extensions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number 012002
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


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