Time-related aspects of commute well-being

Birgitta Sandberg, Leila Hurmerinta, Henna M. Leino, Esko Lehtonen, Jari Lyytimäki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Commute well-being is a multidimensional concept. However, existing research on commuting has focused mainly on hedonic well-being, whereas eudaimonic well-being has been given very little consideration. Furthermore, even though the time-related aspects of commute well-being have been acknowledged in conceptual studies, empirical studies have not yet explored them. The aim of this study is to understand both hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of commute well-being and how these are shaped by time-related aspects relating to the past, present and future. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 108 individuals representing commuters from three different working environments. Data was coded inductively, and the analysis revealed reflections on past commuting, rewards from present-day commuting and long-term justifications of commuting decisions. The study shows how issues related to eudaimonic well-being establish the long-term base of commuting behaviour and how past hedonic commute well-being impacts commuting behaviour. Acknowledging the temporal dimension is important, because inducing long-lasting behavioural changes requires an understanding of the past and present hedonic commute well-being experiences that impact commuting behaviour in the future. Eudaimonic well-being affects commuters over a longer timescale and enables them to live contently with their choices in the long term.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-187
Number of pages11
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Commute well-being
  • Commuting
  • Eudaimonic well-being
  • Hedonic well-being
  • Time


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