Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car

Panu Karjalainen, Hilkka Timonen, Erkka Saukko, Heino Kuuluvainen, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Matthew Bloss, Miikka Dal Maso, Pauli Simonen, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Henry Brune, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

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Abstract

Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8559-8570
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume16
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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automobile
engine
exhaust emission
particle
traffic emission
urban area
catalyst
hydrocarbon
aerosol
atmosphere
traffic

Cite this

Karjalainen, Panu ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Saukko, Erkka ; Kuuluvainen, Heino ; Saarikoski, Sanna ; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi ; Murtonen, Timo ; Bloss, Matthew ; Dal Maso, Miikka ; Simonen, Pauli ; Ahlberg, Erik ; Svenningsson, Birgitta ; Brune, William Henry ; Hillamo, Risto ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Rönkkö, Topi. / Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 13. pp. 8559-8570.
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title = "Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car",
abstract = "Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.",
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language = "English",
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Karjalainen, P, Timonen, H, Saukko, E, Kuuluvainen, H, Saarikoski, S, Aakko-Saksa, P, Murtonen, T, Bloss, M, Dal Maso, M, Simonen, P, Ahlberg, E, Svenningsson, B, Brune, WH, Hillamo, R, Keskinen, J & Rönkkö, T 2016, 'Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car', Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 8559-8570. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016

Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. / Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Saukko, Erkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Bloss, Matthew; Dal Maso, Miikka; Simonen, Pauli; Ahlberg, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Brune, William Henry; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi.

In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, No. 13, 2016, p. 8559-8570.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car

AU - Karjalainen, Panu

AU - Timonen, Hilkka

AU - Saukko, Erkka

AU - Kuuluvainen, Heino

AU - Saarikoski, Sanna

AU - Aakko-Saksa, Päivi

AU - Murtonen, Timo

AU - Bloss, Matthew

AU - Dal Maso, Miikka

AU - Simonen, Pauli

AU - Ahlberg, Erik

AU - Svenningsson, Birgitta

AU - Brune, William Henry

AU - Hillamo, Risto

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

AU - Rönkkö, Topi

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.

AB - Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.

U2 - 10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016

DO - 10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 8559

EP - 8570

JO - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

JF - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

SN - 1680-7316

IS - 13

ER -