Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car

Panu Karjalainen, Hilkka Timonen, Erkka Saukko, Heino Kuuluvainen, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Matthew Bloss, Miikka Dal Maso, Pauli Simonen, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Henry Brune, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    Abstract

    Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8559-8570
    JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
    Volume16
    Issue number13
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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    automobile
    engine
    exhaust emission
    particle
    traffic emission
    urban area
    catalyst
    hydrocarbon
    aerosol
    atmosphere
    traffic

    Cite this

    Karjalainen, Panu ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Saukko, Erkka ; Kuuluvainen, Heino ; Saarikoski, Sanna ; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi ; Murtonen, Timo ; Bloss, Matthew ; Dal Maso, Miikka ; Simonen, Pauli ; Ahlberg, Erik ; Svenningsson, Birgitta ; Brune, William Henry ; Hillamo, Risto ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Rönkkö, Topi. / Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 13. pp. 8559-8570.
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    title = "Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car",
    abstract = "Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.",
    author = "Panu Karjalainen and Hilkka Timonen and Erkka Saukko and Heino Kuuluvainen and Sanna Saarikoski and P{\"a}ivi Aakko-Saksa and Timo Murtonen and Matthew Bloss and {Dal Maso}, Miikka and Pauli Simonen and Erik Ahlberg and Birgitta Svenningsson and Brune, {William Henry} and Risto Hillamo and Jorma Keskinen and Topi R{\"o}nkk{\"o}",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016",
    language = "English",
    volume = "16",
    pages = "8559--8570",
    journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
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    publisher = "European Geosciences Union",
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    Karjalainen, P, Timonen, H, Saukko, E, Kuuluvainen, H, Saarikoski, S, Aakko-Saksa, P, Murtonen, T, Bloss, M, Dal Maso, M, Simonen, P, Ahlberg, E, Svenningsson, B, Brune, WH, Hillamo, R, Keskinen, J & Rönkkö, T 2016, 'Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car', Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 8559-8570. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016

    Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. / Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Saukko, Erkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Bloss, Matthew; Dal Maso, Miikka; Simonen, Pauli; Ahlberg, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Brune, William Henry; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi.

    In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, No. 13, 2016, p. 8559-8570.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car

    AU - Karjalainen, Panu

    AU - Timonen, Hilkka

    AU - Saukko, Erkka

    AU - Kuuluvainen, Heino

    AU - Saarikoski, Sanna

    AU - Aakko-Saksa, Päivi

    AU - Murtonen, Timo

    AU - Bloss, Matthew

    AU - Dal Maso, Miikka

    AU - Simonen, Pauli

    AU - Ahlberg, Erik

    AU - Svenningsson, Birgitta

    AU - Brune, William Henry

    AU - Hillamo, Risto

    AU - Keskinen, Jorma

    AU - Rönkkö, Topi

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.

    AB - Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.

    U2 - 10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016

    DO - 10.5194/acp-16-8559-2016

    M3 - Article

    VL - 16

    SP - 8559

    EP - 8570

    JO - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

    JF - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

    SN - 1680-7316

    IS - 13

    ER -