Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies

Part I: Experimental campaign and results

Cyril Bajamundi (Corresponding Author), Pasi Vainikka, M. Hedman, I. Hyytiäinen, J. Silvennoinen, T. Heinanen, Raili Taipale, J. Konttinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Levels of PCDD/F production in a 140 MWth bubbling fluidized bed boiler were measured. The boiler uses solid recovered fuel, bark and sludge. Homologue distribution patterns suggest the de novo mechanism is the main pathway for the generation of dioxin and furans in the post combustion zones of the boiler. Two modes of sulfur addition were tested to induce the deactivation of Cu which has been identified as the prime catalyst of this mechanism. First, S-pellet promoted Cu sulfation as supported by aerosol sampling data and resulted in a decrease in PCDD/F levels. The second approach was adding sulfur through peat; this resulted in an increase in PCDD/F concentration. Factors such as high Cu content in the SRF-peat-sludge fuel mixture and reduced volatilization of Cu may have contributed to the said increase. For all test cases, phase redistribution of PCDD/F was observed in the electrostatic precipitator favoring more gaseous PCDD/F at the outlet. The homologue distribution pattern did not change in the flue gas path, suggesting that further synthesis and/or chlorination in the stream were minimized. There is however evidence for subsequent reactions happening in the ESP fly ash. The homologue distribution pattern in the latter was different from that of the flue gas, and more highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs were present. Furthermore, the ratio of PCDD and PCDF was different from that of the samples in the flue gas path.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)677-687
Number of pages11
JournalFuel
Volume134
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Flue gases
Sulfur
Boilers
Peat
Coal Ash
Furans
Electrostatic precipitators
Dioxins
Chlorination
Aerosols
Vaporization
Fly ash
Fluidized beds
Sampling
Catalysts

Keywords

  • fluidized bed boilers
  • solid recovered fuel
  • copper
  • sulfur addition
  • electrostatic precipitators
  • PCDD/F
  • waste management

Cite this

Bajamundi, C., Vainikka, P., Hedman, M., Hyytiäinen, I., Silvennoinen, J., Heinanen, T., ... Konttinen, J. (2014). Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies: Part I: Experimental campaign and results. Fuel, 134, 677-687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.05.034
Bajamundi, Cyril ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Hedman, M. ; Hyytiäinen, I. ; Silvennoinen, J. ; Heinanen, T. ; Taipale, Raili ; Konttinen, J. / Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies : Part I: Experimental campaign and results. In: Fuel. 2014 ; Vol. 134. pp. 677-687.
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title = "Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies: Part I: Experimental campaign and results",
abstract = "Levels of PCDD/F production in a 140 MWth bubbling fluidized bed boiler were measured. The boiler uses solid recovered fuel, bark and sludge. Homologue distribution patterns suggest the de novo mechanism is the main pathway for the generation of dioxin and furans in the post combustion zones of the boiler. Two modes of sulfur addition were tested to induce the deactivation of Cu which has been identified as the prime catalyst of this mechanism. First, S-pellet promoted Cu sulfation as supported by aerosol sampling data and resulted in a decrease in PCDD/F levels. The second approach was adding sulfur through peat; this resulted in an increase in PCDD/F concentration. Factors such as high Cu content in the SRF-peat-sludge fuel mixture and reduced volatilization of Cu may have contributed to the said increase. For all test cases, phase redistribution of PCDD/F was observed in the electrostatic precipitator favoring more gaseous PCDD/F at the outlet. The homologue distribution pattern did not change in the flue gas path, suggesting that further synthesis and/or chlorination in the stream were minimized. There is however evidence for subsequent reactions happening in the ESP fly ash. The homologue distribution pattern in the latter was different from that of the flue gas, and more highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs were present. Furthermore, the ratio of PCDD and PCDF was different from that of the samples in the flue gas path.",
keywords = "fluidized bed boilers, solid recovered fuel, copper, sulfur addition, electrostatic precipitators, PCDD/F, waste management",
author = "Cyril Bajamundi and Pasi Vainikka and M. Hedman and I. Hyyti{\"a}inen and J. Silvennoinen and T. Heinanen and Raili Taipale and J. Konttinen",
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Bajamundi, C, Vainikka, P, Hedman, M, Hyytiäinen, I, Silvennoinen, J, Heinanen, T, Taipale, R & Konttinen, J 2014, 'Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies: Part I: Experimental campaign and results', Fuel, vol. 134, pp. 677-687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.05.034

Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies : Part I: Experimental campaign and results. / Bajamundi, Cyril (Corresponding Author); Vainikka, Pasi; Hedman, M.; Hyytiäinen, I.; Silvennoinen, J.; Heinanen, T.; Taipale, Raili; Konttinen, J.

In: Fuel, Vol. 134, 2014, p. 677-687.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies

T2 - Part I: Experimental campaign and results

AU - Bajamundi, Cyril

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Hedman, M.

AU - Hyytiäinen, I.

AU - Silvennoinen, J.

AU - Heinanen, T.

AU - Taipale, Raili

AU - Konttinen, J.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Levels of PCDD/F production in a 140 MWth bubbling fluidized bed boiler were measured. The boiler uses solid recovered fuel, bark and sludge. Homologue distribution patterns suggest the de novo mechanism is the main pathway for the generation of dioxin and furans in the post combustion zones of the boiler. Two modes of sulfur addition were tested to induce the deactivation of Cu which has been identified as the prime catalyst of this mechanism. First, S-pellet promoted Cu sulfation as supported by aerosol sampling data and resulted in a decrease in PCDD/F levels. The second approach was adding sulfur through peat; this resulted in an increase in PCDD/F concentration. Factors such as high Cu content in the SRF-peat-sludge fuel mixture and reduced volatilization of Cu may have contributed to the said increase. For all test cases, phase redistribution of PCDD/F was observed in the electrostatic precipitator favoring more gaseous PCDD/F at the outlet. The homologue distribution pattern did not change in the flue gas path, suggesting that further synthesis and/or chlorination in the stream were minimized. There is however evidence for subsequent reactions happening in the ESP fly ash. The homologue distribution pattern in the latter was different from that of the flue gas, and more highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs were present. Furthermore, the ratio of PCDD and PCDF was different from that of the samples in the flue gas path.

AB - Levels of PCDD/F production in a 140 MWth bubbling fluidized bed boiler were measured. The boiler uses solid recovered fuel, bark and sludge. Homologue distribution patterns suggest the de novo mechanism is the main pathway for the generation of dioxin and furans in the post combustion zones of the boiler. Two modes of sulfur addition were tested to induce the deactivation of Cu which has been identified as the prime catalyst of this mechanism. First, S-pellet promoted Cu sulfation as supported by aerosol sampling data and resulted in a decrease in PCDD/F levels. The second approach was adding sulfur through peat; this resulted in an increase in PCDD/F concentration. Factors such as high Cu content in the SRF-peat-sludge fuel mixture and reduced volatilization of Cu may have contributed to the said increase. For all test cases, phase redistribution of PCDD/F was observed in the electrostatic precipitator favoring more gaseous PCDD/F at the outlet. The homologue distribution pattern did not change in the flue gas path, suggesting that further synthesis and/or chlorination in the stream were minimized. There is however evidence for subsequent reactions happening in the ESP fly ash. The homologue distribution pattern in the latter was different from that of the flue gas, and more highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs were present. Furthermore, the ratio of PCDD and PCDF was different from that of the samples in the flue gas path.

KW - fluidized bed boilers

KW - solid recovered fuel

KW - copper

KW - sulfur addition

KW - electrostatic precipitators

KW - PCDD/F

KW - waste management

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.05.034

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.05.034

M3 - Article

VL - 134

SP - 677

EP - 687

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -